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PowerPoint vs Other Presentation Tools: Which is Right for You?

When it comes to creating impactful presentations, there are numerous tools available in the market. However, one of the most popular and widely used applications is Microsoft PowerPoint. While PowerPoint has been the go-to choice for many professionals and educators, it’s important to consider other presentation tools as well. In this article, we will compare PowerPoint with other presentation tools to help you decide which one is right for you.

PowerPoint: The Classic Choice

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This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.


problem solving and decision making powerpoint presentation

Problem Solving and Decision Making

Ibrahim M. Morsy

A logical step by step guide to solve business problems, that lead to a suitable decision making course.


Effective Problem Solving and Decision Making

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  • 1. Problem Solving & Decision Making 2007
  • 3. Background to Problem Solving (1)
  • 13. Setting the Problem Statement (2) Describe the problem Develop a one sentence problem statement
  • 27. Analyze the Problem in Detail (3) Analyze what is wrong Analyze what is right
  • 42. Identify Likely Causes (4) What's different? What has changed? What are the most likely causes?
  • 48. Define Actual Causes (5) What is the most likely explanation? Can I prove it?
  • 56. Decision Making The ICES decision making process stands for I nitiate C riteria E valuate S elect
  • 62. Thank You..!


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Problem Solving and Decision Making Skills

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Problem Solving and Decision Making Skills

Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities Unit 1

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1 Decision making – The process of making a choice between alternatives Problem solving - the process of producing alternative solutions to a recognized.

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BY Muhammad Suleman MBA MIT BSC (COMPUTER).  What is decision Making  Why decision Making  Conditions under which decision are made  What is Rational.

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Problem Solving And Decision Making Powerpoint Presentation Slides



Sep 11, 2014

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PROBLEM SOLVING & DECISION MAKING. Learning Objectives. At the end of the training, participants are expected to : Understand how to use an innovative yet structured process-based problem solving approach in practical scenarios. Recognize how to take informed decisions and calculated risks.

  • problem solving
  • cost impact
  • problem statement
  • problem solving terminology
  • problem solving decision making


Presentation Transcript


Learning Objectives • At the end of the training, participants are expected to: • Understand how to use an innovative yet structured process-based problem solving approach in practical scenarios. • Recognize how to take informed decisions and calculated risks.

Module 3 Problem solving & decision making

“ There are no big problems, there are just a lot of little problems ” - Henry Ford

Section1 Problem solving models/ methodologies

What is problem solving? • Problem solving is a higher order thinking process aimed at improving performance or solving impending problems in any aspect of life. • It requires the modulation and control of more routine or fundamental skills with structured thinking and strong effort from a committed group Service Delivery Team Middle Management Project Sponsor Process Group Team Support Team

What is problem solving? • Problem solving is often misunderstood • Issues are confused as problems and problems are confused as causes Issue Problem Cause • Terminology is very critical before looking into the methods of problem solving

Problem Solving Terminology Issue Proposal to solve a problem Cause What brings about a problem Situation What a circumstance is Purpose What we want to do or what we want to be Problem Some portions of a situation that cannot realize purpose Problem Process with set of actions to attain the purpose / aim Solving Identifying the appropriate solution / problem solving calls for strong thinking pattern

Team Building Your Thoughts…..

Thinking patterns STRATEGIC THINKING Judging based on whether a situation is focused or not… remember Strategy is not necessarily strategic EMOTIONAL THINKING Judging based on the participants REALISTIC THINKING Starts from what one can do and fix the essential problems first EMPIRICAL THINKING Judging based on previous experience

Thinking patterns SYSTEMS THINKING Scientific problem solving approach utilizing system concept Purpose Result Outside cause Inside cause Output Input Function System based problem solving process

Systems Thinking • Systems thinking brings structure into the problem solving approach • It is based on system concept • Clearly defines components and the boundaries of each one of them. • Major components • Purpose • Input • Output • Function • Causes (Inside / Outside) • Result

8D Methodology • Structured problem solving approach • Mainly applicable to product / process improvement through correction / elimination of problems • Applies 8 timeless principles to solve problems • Based on using a team approach rather than focusing on individuals

8D Methodology Form Team 1 Describe problem 2 Implement and Verify Interim actions 3 Containment Y N Is it root cause? Identify potential causes Select likely causes Identify possible solution 4 Verify Corrective action 5 6 Implement it Prevent recurrence 7 Congratulate team 8

TRIZ Methodology • Strong creative problem solving methodology • Follows a systematic approach to solve problems against other Sisyphean tasks • Always strives for ideal solutions by avoiding any compromises common with other methods • Major advantage is its ability to by-pass / eliminate contradictions of the system by refusing trade-offs

TRIZ Methodology The Search for solution

Hybrid PSDM Methodology • Using the best practices from all these methods problem solving and decision making can be carved out as a simple “SOLVE” methodology • Similar to the DMAIC approach of SIX SIGMA SPECIFY OBSERVE & MEASURE ANALYZE VERIFY & CHOOSE EXECUTE & EVALUATE

“A problem well stated is a problem half solved” - John Dewey

Problem Framing • Break problems apart in a hierarchical form using a logic tree • Start at 20,000 ft view and move progressively downward • Logic tree diagrams can be drawn from a functional perspective (sales / research / accounting / operations) or from existing problem perspective • Create and follow a structure for problem solving • Structure helps in gripping the issues rapidly • M.E.C.E (MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE & COMPLETELY EXHAUSTIVE) • Do not try to reinvent the wheel

Identify Business Needs - SPECIFY • Business Needs • No needs… No problems !!! • So identify business needs … • Business needs can usually be in several forms • People Competency • Market / Customer • Financial • Operational

Problem Statement Example During FY 2005, the 1st Time Call Resolution Efficiency for New Customer Hardware Setup was 89% . This represents a gap of 8% from the targets @ 97% that amounts to US $2,000,000 of annualized cost impact.

Problem Statement Template Fill in the Blanks for Your Project: During ___________________________________ , the ____________________ for (Period of time for baseline performance) (Primary business measure) ________________________ was _________________ . (A key business process) (Baseline performance) This gap of ____________________________ (Business objective target vs. baseline) from ___________________ represents ____________________ of cost impact. (Business objective) (Cost impact of gap)

OBSERVE & MEASURE – Data Gathering Data Quantitative Qualitative • Data gathering throws awide avenue for improvement in Organizations • It is neither easy nor fun. But it can be made simple and painless

Data Gathering – Major Techniques Data Quantitative Qualitative • Tally Sheets • Check Sheets • Quality Function Deployment • Research • Brainstorming • Research • Interviewing • Surveys • Affinity Diagram

Select group of people with background in the process area Create the right mix in the group Solicit for ideas and moderate the discussion No idea is a bad idea Participate. Be Creative. Encourage wild and exaggerated ideas No criticisms allowed Data Gathering – Qualitative

Remember… No idea is a bad idea Participate Be Creative. Encourage wild and exaggerated ideas No criticisms allowed Quantity counts more than quality at this stage Build on the ideas provided by others Evaluate ideas only at the end of the session Data Gathering – Qualitative

Data Gathering – Qualitative • Interviewing Tips • Be prepared • Interview in pairs • LISTEN Don’t Lead • Use indirect approach • Don’t ask for too much Emphasize on preparation and courtesy

Interpreting Results • Critical step where we prove or disprove the proposed hypothesis • Interpretation of analysis is of two types • 1. Understanding the data and piece it together • 2. Assembling these findings into an externally directed end-product • This represents the course of action for the Organization • There are a number of analysis tools to choose from to interpret the data • It is critical to choose the solution that fits the particular problem

Common Analyses for Interpretation Analysis Quantitative Qualitative • Pareto Chart • Check Sheets • Cost of Quality • Control Chart • Cause & Effect Diagram • Affinity Diagram • Flowchart • Prioritization Matrix

ANALYZE – Cause & Effect Diagram • Commonly called Fishbone diagram (due to its appearance) or Ishikawa Diagram • Extremely useful in organizing and systematically summarizing results and causes Cause IV Cause V Effect Cause II Cause I Cause III

Cause & Effect Diagram – Why? • Need to study a problem/issue to determine the root cause • Want to study all the possible reasons why a process is beginning to have difficulties, problems, or breakdowns • Need to identify areas for data collection • Want to study why a process is not performing properly or producing the desired results

Cause & Effect Diagram – How? Clearly identify and define the problem, symptom, or effect for which the causes must be identified. Place the problem or symptom being explored at the right, enclosed in a box. Draw the central spine as a thick line pointing to it from the left. Brainstorm to identify the "major categories" of possible causes (not less than 2 and normally not more than 6 or 7). If other applicable data such as check sheets are present, incorporate them as well.

Major Categories Methods Machine Man Variation Measurement System Materials Mother Nature

Cause & Effect Diagram – How? Place each of the identified "major categories" of causes in a box or on the diagram and connect it to the central spine by a line Within each "major category" ask, "Why does this condition exist?"   Continue to add clauses to each branch until the fishbone is completed. Once all the bones have been completed, identify the likely, actionable Root Cause(s).  

Sample Cause & Effect Diagram

Pareto Chart Named after Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto “In any group of elements, a small number of elements determine most of the results.” It is also known as the 80/20 rule e.g., 20% of the causes account for 80% of the problems. Concept ofvital few-trivial many

Pareto Chart • A vertical bar chart where bars represent the components of the total effect or problem • Arranged in descending order according to their contribution to the total • A Pareto Diagram allows data to be displayed as a bar chart and enables the main contributions to a problem to be highlighted.

Constructing a Pareto Chart Determine data classification items Determine the check sheet items and collect data Tabulate data for each classification item Arrange data in ascending or descending order of occurrence frequency Calculate cumulative frequency of occurrence against the causes and plot values a histogram Use frequency on the y-axis and causes on the x-axis

Sample Pareto Chart 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Wrong patient Wrong dc’d Missed dose Wrong medicine Wrong dose Wrong time

Tools & Techniques – Selection Guide

Next Steps… • Once the data is interpreted into useful information through appropriate analysis, the next step is to • Present the results to the team / corresponding personnel • Get the buy-in of the team to implement the right solution • This requires clear decision making strategy to be followed by the team • Decision making however is a critical part of every single step in problem solving • Let us look in some detail the process of effective decision making

“The problem is not that there are problems… It is expecting otherwise and thinking that having problems is a problem.” - Theodore Rubin

Section 2 Decision making models/ methodologies

Importance of decision-making 7 Levels ofOrganizational LeadershipMastery Level 7:SeniorExecutiveLeader FiveLeadershipSpecializedSkillAreas(SSAs) Level 6:Group Leader Level 5: Business Leader Level 4: Functional Leader Level 3: Lead Managers Buying & Selling Business Acumen Integrity Communications(Verbal & Non-Verbal) DecisionMaking Interpersonal Relations Level 2: Lead Others Level 1: Lead Self Organizational Leadership Levels (Attitude/Style/Education/Experience) Leadership Competencies

Decision-Making Spectrums (Decision Making Accuracy*) Accurate Inaccurate (Decision Making Time*) Quick Slow/Long *Note: Accuracy is not proportionate/or necessarily related to time.

Problem solving is concerned with overcoming obstacles in the path toward an objective and may or may not require action. A decision is an act requiring judgment that is translated into action. It is more comprehensive than problem solving Decision Making Basics They are interrelated but not interchangeable

The Scope of Decision Making Individual decision making Group decision making Organizational decision making Metaorganizational decision making

The Scope of Decision Making Metaorganization Decisional Inputs (Objectives, information, resources, energy) Organization Interactional Levels Group Individual Decisional Outputs (Actions transactions, outcomes) Permeable Boundaries External Environment

Decision Making Process Compare & analyze alternatives Find alternatives Set objectives Make the choice Follow-up & Control Implement decisions VERIFY AND CHOOSE Revise objectives Renew search Revise / Update objectives Take necessary corrective action EXECUTE AND EVALUATE

Decision Making Process 1 Set Objectives • Objectives constitute the foundation of effective decision making • While making the right decision is the means the objective is the end • Success of the decision making process lies in the measure of attaining the objectives

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  • Problem solving involves making a series of decisions
  • deciding that something is wrong,
  • deciding what the problem is, and
  • deciding how to solve it.
  • Successful problem solving depends on good decisions.
  • Decision A choice from among available alternatives.
  • Much of the supervisors job is making decisions.
  • In many cases, decisions are made without giving any thought to the process of deciding.
  • Supervisors will automatically decide something
  • because it feels right or
  • because a decision has been made on a similar issue in the past.
  • Decision making can be improved by understanding how the decision-making process works in theory and in practice.
  • The rational model of decision making includes
  • a. identify the problem
  • b. identify the alternative solutions
  • c. gather and organize the facts
  • d. evaluate the alternatives
  • e. select and implement the best alternative
  • f. get feedback and take corrective action.
  • The importance of understanding and using a model is that the decision will be the result of facts and analysis rather than of opinions and feelings.
  • Identification of the real problem is extremely important.
  • If the wrong cause and solution for that cause is selected, the problem will still be there.
  • Deming says that most problems are unknown or unknowable.
  • There are two basic types of problems
  • simple, or acute and
  • long-standing, or chronic, problems.
  • Simple problems occur suddenly, and the cause of the problem may be obvious.
  • An example is when the electricity goes off because a fuse is blown.
  • The chronic, or recurring, problem is usually more complex, and it is difficult to determine the causes and solutions.
  • This type of problem can benefit from the conscious use of a problem-solving or decision-making model.
  • Choosing an alternative that meets minimum standards of acceptability.
  • Solutions that meet minimum standards will likely result in a return of the problem, since there is no margin of safety that will allow for slight changes and desirable outcomes.
  • The tendency to most easily remember events that have occurred recently.
  • To test this concept, try to remember what happened yesterday.
  • Now try to remember eight or ten days ago with the same kind of detail.
  • Rigid opinions about categories of people.
  • Supervisors often have neither the time nor the desire to follow all these steps to make a good decision.
  • They may have trouble thinking of all the alternatives or
  • gathering all the facts they need.
  • Given the human and organizational limitations, supervisors tend to make compromises most of the time.
  • If the supervisor is aware of the kinds of compromises people make, he or she is more likely to be aware when using them.
  • Some kinds of compromises are useful in some situations, others are to be avoided as much as possible.
  • Sitnplicity.
  • Usually what we do is think over our experiences and consider some of the ways similar problems have been handled in the past.
  • The downside of this approach is that it tends to bypass new and innovative solutions that may deliver better results.
  • When it seems impossible or unreasonable to find the best alternative in the universe, decision makers settle for an alternative they consider enough .
  • The process is also known as bounded rationality, that is, the decision maker places limits, or bounds, on the rational model of decision making.
  • The decision maker considers alternatives only until he or she finds one that meets his or her minimum criteria acceptability.
  • This considers alternatives that are the result of intuition and instincts, rather than impartial data.
  • Even when the process for arriving at the decision otherwise rational, the numbers used in the process may be subjective.
  • As a result, they may be less than completely accurate.
  • People tend to favor solutions that they believe they can justify to others.
  • People may assume that everyone sees things the way they do.
  • They think if something is clear to them it is also clear to everyone else.
  • Decision makers must find out what other people are thinking and take those views into account.
  • Rigid opinions about categories of people distort the truth that people offer a rich variety of individual strengths and viewpoints.
  • The cure for stereotyping is not to assume that everyone is alike.
  • The supervisor should be aware of what his or her stereotypes about people and situations are.
  • In making a decision, the supervisor should consider whether those stereotypes truly describe the situation at hand.
  • When the consequences of a decision are great, the supervisor should spend more time on the decision.
  • He or she should try to follow the rational model of decision making, collecting information and including as many alternatives as possible.
  • When the consequences are slight, the supervisor should limit the time and money spent in identifying and evaluating alternatives.
  • In a crisis, the supervisor should quickly select the course of action that seems best
  • This is an application of satisficing.
  • Rather than waiting to evaluate other alternatives, the supervisor should begin implementing the solution and interpreting feedback to see whether the solution is working.
  • Supervisors should be careful in identifying crisis situations.
  • Sometimes it is easy to define more and more situations as a crisis or pseudo crisis using crisis decision-making methods.
  • The supervisors boss doesnt want to hear about every minor decision, but the boss does need to know what is happening in the department.
  • The supervisor should inform the boss about major decisions.
  • These would include decisions affecting
  • the department,
  • meeting objectives,
  • responses to crises, and
  • any decision that might be controversial.
  • When the boss needs to know about a decision, its usually smart to discuss the problem before reaching and announcing the decision.
  • The boss may have some input to the decision-making process that may modify the supervisors decision.
  • In a crisis, the supervisor may not have time to consult with his or her boss and has to settle for discussing the decision as soon as possible afterward.
  • Sometimes it is difficult to say which alternative solution is best.
  • Perhaps none of the choices looks good enough.
  • In this case, it may be difficult to move beyond studying the alternatives to selection and implementation.
  • However, avoiding a decision is just another way to decide to do nothing.
  • Being decisive means reaching a decision within a reasonable amount of time.
  • The supervisor should pick the best alternative or at least an acceptable one, and then focus on implementing it.
  • A decisive supervisor clears his or her desk of routine matters when a problem arises.
  • The supervisor
  • refers the question or problem to the proper people,
  • delegates appropriately, and
  • keeps work moving.
  • He or she takes complete responsibility for getting the facts needed.
  • A decisive supervisor keeps his or her employees informed of what they are expected to do and how they are progressing relative to their objectives.
  • Being decisive should not mean that a supervisor is blind to signs of a mistake.
  • If the feedback indicates the solution is not working, the supervisor must be flexible and try another approach
  • Avoid making a major issue out of each decision.
  • Good planning can avert many crises, and life-and-death issues are not the usual stuff of the supervisors job.
  • Put each issue into perspective so that alternatives can be evaluated and an appropriate amount of time can be devoted to finding the solution.
  • Avoid inappropriate responses to failure.
  • Acknowledge mistakes, but do not dwell and agonize over them.
  • It is more important to learn whatever lesson the mistake can teach, and then move on.
  • Remember to draw on easily available information.
  • Have some of the alternatives been tried before?
  • If so, what was the outcome?
  • Also consult with other members of the organization or with outside experts.
  • Beware of promising too much.
  • Dont make promises you cant keep to your employees or your boss.
  • A body of techniques for comparing the consequences of possible decisions in a risk situation.
  • A graph that helps in decision making by showing the value of expected outcomes of decisions under varying circumstances.
  • Decision trees can be used to present a variety of conditions to help familiarize others who are involved in the decision-making process.
  • A computer program that leads the user through the steps of the formal decision-making process.
  • Software programs can construct the tree diagram and other decision-making tools, such as matrices that consider multiple factors.
  • The decision tree is a graph or picture of all alternatives under consideration.
  • Decision-making benefits from a logical process that will present alternatives in a format that displays the alternatives and consequences of selecting each of the possible alternatives.
  • It is useful to the supervisor because it can show relationships and potential outcomes of each step of the decision-making process, and allows mathematical calculations by including probability factors or risk involved in each decision.
  • In constructing the decision tree, the consequences for each alternative are considered.
  • The decision tree can also be used to inform and communicate with the supervisors boss.
  • A decision can be selected with a fair amount of certainty.
  • However, with the decision tree, if the selected alternative not working as anticipated, another alternative has already been considered with its consequences.
  • The failure to think independently and realistically as a group because of the desire to enjoy consensus and closeness.
  • An illusion of being invulnerable
  • Defending the groups position against any objections
  • A view that the group is clearly moral--the good guys
  • Stereotyped views of opponents
  • Pressure against group members who disagree
  • Self-censorship, that is, not allowing oneself to disagree.
  • An illusion that everyone agrees (because no one states an opposing view)
  • Self-appointed mindguards--people who urge other group members to go along with the group.
  • Some organizations allow or expect supervisors to work with others in arriving at a decision
  • Supervisors might encourage employees to come up with a solution themselves.
  • Group members can contribute more ideas for alternatives than an individual working alone.
  • The group will have a broader perspective since the experience of the group is broader than an individuals experience.
  • People involved in the decision will better understand an alternative selected and also be more likely to support the decision.
  • Involvement by employees in decision making provides an opportunity for improving morale and employee self-esteem.
  • Recognition of the contributions of groups is a powerful motivator.
  • Group decision making is slower than individual decision making.
  • There is an opportunity cost to the organization when employees spend time in meetings rather than producing or selling.
  • If one person dominates the decision-making process, the value of multiple inputs is lost.
  • An idea-generating process in which group members state their ideas, a member of a group records them, and anyone may comment on the ideas until the process is complete.
  • Brainstorming is the process of coming up with as many ideas as possible.
  • It may be structured, that is, each person takes a turn suggesting an idea.
  • An unstructured session calls for individuals calling out whatever comes to mind. In the use of either method, no value judgments should be made about the suggestions.
  • A brainstorming session can be held for generating ideas about problems to be solved, causes for identified problems, and alternative solutions for the problem.
  • Individuals with knowledge about the issue should be included, although an outsider may also be useful.
  • This person will help clarify and question why suggestions are or are not made.
  • The supervisor is wise to involve employees in some but not all decisions.
  • When a decision must be made quickly, like in an emergency, the supervisor should probably make it alone.
  • When the supervisor needs to build support for a solution, such as in cutting costs or improving productivity, the group process is useful.
  • When the consequences of a poor decision are great, the benefits of the groups collective wisdom are worth the time and expense of gathering the input
  • The supervisor may use the employees for input or they may be asked to make the decision.
  • Whenever supervisors ask for employee input, they should be sure they intend to use the information.
  • Since a primary benefit of group decision making is the variety of opinions and expertise, a supervisor leading a decision-making meeting should be sure that everyone is participating.
  • The supervisor should concentrate on listening and encouraging the input of others.
  • If someone is not participating, the supervisor may have to ask for his or her opinion or thoughts on the matter at hand.
  • Brainstorming is another way to generate ideas in a group.
  • Group members state their ideas no matter how far-reaching they may seem.
  • No one may criticize or even comment on an idea until the end of the process.
  • All ideas are recorded on a flip chart or black (white) board.
  • Evaluation or follow-up on ideas takes place after all ideas are suggested.
  • Fifty to a hundred ideas may be generated in a single brainstorming session.
  • The value of generating ideas in a free and open forum is to have group members build off each others ideas.
  • Some ideas are likely to be only slightly different from others or a combination of previously mentioned ideas.
  • The ability to bring about something imaginative or new.
  • In decision making, creativity means being able to generate alternatives that are innovative or different from what what has been used in the past.
  • Thinking outside the box
  • There is a common notion that some people are creative and the rest of us are stuck with following routine and ordinary courses of action.
  • A fundamental way to become more creative is to be open to your own ideas.
  • think of as many alternatives as you can
  • jot them down
  • dont evaluate them until after you have finished the list.
  • Gather the raw materials by learning about the problem and by developing your general knowledge.
  • Constantly expand your experience.
  • Work over those materials in your mind
  • As you think of partial ideas, jot them down so you can refer to them later.
  • If youre stuck on a problem, try leaving it for a while.
  • Let your subconscious do the work.
  • Stimulate your imagination.
  • Identify an idea.
  • Ideas often pop into your head unexpectedly.
  • Shape and develop the idea to make it practical
  • Seek out constructive criticism.
  • The most important step a supervisor can take to establish a work climate that encourages creative thinking is to show that he or she values creativity.
  • When employees offer suggestions, the supervisor should listen attentively and look for the positive aspects of the suggestions.
  • Then the supervisor should attempt to implement the suggestions and give the employee credit for the idea.
  • Failure should be acknowledged as a sign that people are trying.
  • Help employees see what can be learned from failures as well as from successes.
  • Creating an environment that fosters creativity is not simply listening to alternative solutions when problems occur.
  • The environment is developed daily and by all levels of the organization.
  • The supervisor can nurture a creative environment by the way he/she treats people and their ideas on an ongoing basis.
  • Respect for all employees and appreciation of daily contributions will create an environment where employees feel valued and are willing to think about the problems of the workplace.
  • Often supervisors and employees have difficulty being creative because they are afraid their ideas will fail.
  • Focus on learning from failures
  • Another barrier to creativity is being overly busy.
  • Creativity requires time to think.
  • Isolation also interferes with creativity.

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