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Case-based learning (CBL) is an established approach used across disciplines where students apply their knowledge to real-world scenarios, promoting higher levels of cognition (see Bloom’s Taxonomy ). In CBL classrooms, students typically work in groups on case studies, stories involving one or more characters and/or scenarios. The cases present a disciplinary problem or problems for which students devise solutions under the guidance of the instructor. CBL has a strong history of successful implementation in medical, law, and business schools, and is increasingly used within undergraduate education, particularly within pre-professional majors and the sciences (Herreid, 1994). This method involves guided inquiry and is grounded in constructivism whereby students form new meanings by interacting with their knowledge and the environment (Lee, 2012).
There are a number of benefits to using CBL in the classroom. In a review of the literature, Williams (2005) describes how CBL: utilizes collaborative learning, facilitates the integration of learning, develops students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to learn, encourages learner self-reflection and critical reflection, allows for scientific inquiry, integrates knowledge and practice, and supports the development of a variety of learning skills.
CBL has several defining characteristics, including versatility, storytelling power, and efficient self-guided learning. In a systematic analysis of 104 articles in health professions education, CBL was found to be utilized in courses with less than 50 to over 1000 students (Thistlethwaite et al., 2012). In these classrooms, group sizes ranged from 1 to 30, with most consisting of 2 to 15 students. Instructors varied in the proportion of time they implemented CBL in the classroom, ranging from one case spanning two hours of classroom time, to year-long case-based courses. These findings demonstrate that instructors use CBL in a variety of ways in their classrooms.
The stories that comprise the framework of case studies are also a key component to CBL’s effectiveness. Jonassen and Hernandez-Serrano (2002, p.66) describe how storytelling:
Is a method of negotiating and renegotiating meanings that allows us to enter into other’s realms of meaning through messages they utter in their stories,
Helps us find our place in a culture,
Allows us to explicate and to interpret, and
Facilitates the attainment of vicarious experience by helping us to distinguish the positive models to emulate from the negative model.
Neurochemically, listening to stories can activate oxytocin, a hormone that increases one’s sensitivity to social cues, resulting in more empathy, generosity, compassion and trustworthiness (Zak, 2013; Kosfeld et al., 2005). The stories within case studies serve as a means by which learners form new understandings through characters and/or scenarios.
CBL is often described in conjunction or in comparison with problem-based learning (PBL). While the lines are often confusingly blurred within the literature, in the most conservative of definitions, the features distinguishing the two approaches include that PBL involves open rather than guided inquiry, is less structured, and the instructor plays a more passive role. In PBL multiple solutions to the problem may exit, but the problem is often initially not well-defined. PBL also has a stronger emphasis on developing self-directed learning. The choice between implementing CBL versus PBL is highly dependent on the goals and context of the instruction. For example, in a comparison of PBL and CBL approaches during a curricular shift at two medical schools, students and faculty preferred CBL to PBL (Srinivasan et al., 2007). Students perceived CBL to be a more efficient process and more clinically applicable. However, in another context, PBL might be the favored approach.
In a review of the effectiveness of CBL in health profession education, Thistlethwaite et al. (2012), found several benefits:
Students enjoyed the method and thought it enhanced their learning,
Instructors liked how CBL engaged students in learning,
CBL seemed to facilitate small group learning, but the authors could not distinguish between whether it was the case itself or the small group learning that occurred as facilitated by the case.
Other studies have also reported on the effectiveness of CBL in achieving learning outcomes (Bonney, 2015; Breslin, 2008; Herreid, 2013; Krain, 2016). These findings suggest that CBL is a vehicle of engagement for instruction, and facilitates an environment whereby students can construct knowledge.
Science – Students are given a scenario to which they apply their basic science knowledge and problem-solving skills to help them solve the case. One example within the biological sciences is two brothers who have a family history of a genetic illness. They each have mutations within a particular sequence in their DNA. Students work through the case and draw conclusions about the biological impacts of these mutations using basic science. Sample cases: You are Not the Mother of Your Children ; Organic Chemisty and Your Cellphone: Organic Light-Emitting Diodes ; A Light on Physics: F-Number and Exposure Time
Medicine – Medical or pre-health students read about a patient presenting with specific symptoms. Students decide which questions are important to ask the patient in their medical history, how long they have experienced such symptoms, etc. The case unfolds and students use clinical reasoning, propose relevant tests, develop a differential diagnoses and a plan of treatment. Sample cases: The Case of the Crying Baby: Surgical vs. Medical Management ; The Plan: Ethics and Physician Assisted Suicide ; The Haemophilus Vaccine: A Victory for Immunologic Engineering
Public Health – A case study describes a pandemic of a deadly infectious disease. Students work through the case to identify Patient Zero, the person who was the first to spread the disease, and how that individual became infected. Sample cases: The Protective Parent ; The Elusive Tuberculosis Case: The CDC and Andrew Speaker ; Credible Voice: WHO-Beijing and the SARS Crisis
Law – A case study presents a legal dilemma for which students use problem solving to decide the best way to advise and defend a client. Students are presented information that changes during the case. Sample cases: Mortgage Crisis Call (abstract) ; The Case of the Unpaid Interns (abstract) ; Police-Community Dialogue (abstract)
Business – Students work on a case study that presents the history of a business success or failure. They apply business principles learned in the classroom and assess why the venture was successful or not. Sample cases: SELCO-Determining a path forward ; Project Masiluleke: Texting and Testing to Fight HIV/AIDS in South Africa ; Mayo Clinic: Design Thinking in Healthcare
Humanities - Students consider a case that presents a theater facing financial and management difficulties. They apply business and theater principles learned in the classroom to the case, working together to create solutions for the theater. Sample cases: https://yaletmknowledgebase.org/category/case-studies/ .
Finding and Writing Cases
Consider utilizing or adapting open access cases - The availability of open resources and databases containing cases that instructors can download makes this approach even more accessible in the classroom. Instructors can consider in particular the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science , a database featuring hundreds of accessible STEM- and social science - based case studies.
- Consider writing original cases - In the event that an instructor is unable to find open access cases relevant to their course learning objectives, they may choose to write their own. See the following resources on case writing: Cooking with Betty Crocker: A Recipe for Case Writing ; The Way of Flesch: The Art of Writing Readable Cases ; Twixt Fact and Fiction: A Case Writer’s Dilemma ; And All That Jazz: An Essay Extolling the Virtues of Writing Case Teaching Notes .
Take baby steps if new to CBL - While entire courses and curricula may involve case-based learning, instructors who desire to implement on a smaller-scale can integrate a single case into their class, and increase the number of cases utilized over time as desired.
Use cases in classes that are small, medium or large - Cases can be scaled to any course size. In large classes with stadium seating, students can work with peers nearby, while in small classes with more flexible seating arrangements, teams can move their chairs closer together. CBL can introduce more noise (and energy) in the classroom to which an instructor often quickly becomes accustomed. Further, students can be asked to work on cases outside of class, and wrap up discussion during the next class meeting.
Encourage collaborative work - Cases present an opportunity for students to work together to solve cases which the historical literature supports as beneficial to student learning (Bruffee, 1993). Allow students to work in groups to answer case questions.
Form diverse teams as feasible - When students work within diverse teams they can be exposed to a variety of perspectives that can help them solve the case. Depending on the context of the course, priorities, and the background information gathered about the students enrolled in the class, instructors may choose to organize student groups to allow for diversity in factors such as current course grades, gender, race/ethnicity, personality, among other items.
Use stable teams as appropriate - If CBL is a large component of the course, a research-supported practice is to keep teams together long enough to go through the stages of group development: forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning (Tuckman, 1965).
Walk around to guide groups - In CBL instructors serve as facilitators of student learning. Walking around allows the instructor to monitor student progress as well as identify and support any groups that may be struggling. Teaching assistants can also play a valuable role in supporting groups.
Interrupt strategically - Only every so often, for conversation in large group discussion of the case, especially when students appear confused on key concepts. An effective practice to help students meet case learning goals is to guide them as a whole group when the class is ready. This may include selecting a few student groups to present answers to discussion questions to the entire class, asking the class a question relevant to the case using polling software, and/or performing a mini-lesson on an area that appears to be confusing among students.
Assess student learning in multiple ways - Students can be assessed informally by asking groups to report back answers to various case questions. This practice also helps students stay on task, and keeps them accountable. Cases can also be included on exams using related scenarios where students are asked to apply their knowledge.
Barrows HS. (1996). Problem-based learning in medicine and beyond: a brief overview. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 68, 3-12.
Bonney KM. (2015). Case Study Teaching Method Improves Student Performance and Perceptions of Learning Gains. Journal of Microbiology and Biology Education, 16(1): 21-28.
Breslin M, Buchanan, R. (2008) On the Case Study Method of Research and Teaching in Design. Design Issues, 24(1), 36-40.
Bruffee KS. (1993). Collaborative learning: Higher education, interdependence, and authority of knowledge. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
Herreid CF. (2013). Start with a Story: The Case Study Method of Teaching College Science, edited by Clyde Freeman Herreid. Originally published in 2006 by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA); reprinted by the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science (NCCSTS) in 2013.
Herreid CH. (1994). Case studies in science: A novel method of science education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 23(4), 221–229.
Jonassen DH and Hernandez-Serrano J. (2002). Case-based reasoning and instructional design: Using stories to support problem solving. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 50(2), 65-77.
Kosfeld M, Heinrichs M, Zak PJ, Fischbacher U, Fehr E. (2005). Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature, 435, 673-676.
Krain M. (2016) Putting the learning in case learning? The effects of case-based approaches on student knowledge, attitudes, and engagement. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 27(2), 131-153.
Lee V. (2012). What is Inquiry-Guided Learning? New Directions for Learning, 129:5-14.
Nkhoma M, Sriratanaviriyakul N. (2017). Using case method to enrich students’ learning outcomes. Active Learning in Higher Education, 18(1):37-50.
Srinivasan et al. (2007). Comparing problem-based learning with case-based learning: Effects of a major curricular shift at two institutions. Academic Medicine, 82(1): 74-82.
Thistlethwaite JE et al. (2012). The effectiveness of case-based learning in health professional education. A BEME systematic review: BEME Guide No. 23. Medical Teacher, 34, e421-e444.
Tuckman B. (1965). Development sequence in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63(6), 384-99.
Williams B. (2005). Case-based learning - a review of the literature: is there scope for this educational paradigm in prehospital education? Emerg Med, 22, 577-581.
Zak, PJ (2013). How Stories Change the Brain. Retrieved from: https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/how_stories_change_brain
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#R6266 National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science
Case studies are an excellent source. I signed up! Can't wait to incorporate them into my curriculum.
I have been using a number of case studies from this collection in my second-year nursing pathophysiology course for a number of years. I often add additional questions to tie in concepts from first year A&P. The next step is to introduce case studies into first year A&P and there are so many good ones to choose from!
Sometimes there are different versions of a case study directed at different grade levels.
This is an unbelievable resource. You can join their email listserv to receive notice when new cases are added. The range of topics is incredible. I've used cases in Anatomy, Physiology and General Biology.
Many, many, many case studies. Just sign up
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The links below address teaching concerns such as implementation strategies for the classroom, case resources, and related literature. We hope to add to this list.
National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science University at Buffalo “Here we have listed articles, books, and bibliographies to the case study literature to give you a sample of recent attempts to introduce the case method into the science classroom and a glimpse of its potential as seen through the eyes of some of its most ardent advocates.”
Resources for Problem-Based Learning
Institute for Transforming Undergraduate Education University of Delaware “View sample syllabi from various disciplines, including Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Nutrition and Dietetics” “Videos to help start the discussion on how instructors and peer facilitators can resolve specific issues and challenges that may emerge in groups” “Download the PBL course ratings forms and course evaluation forms” “Read sample problems…”
Teaching Strategies: Case-Based Teaching
Center for Research on Teaching and Learning University of Michigan “With case-based teaching, students develop skills in analytical thinking and reflective judgment by reading and discussing complex, real-life scenarios. The articles in this section explain how to use cases in teaching and provide case studies for the natural sciences, social sciences, and other disciplines.”
How to Use Investigative Cases with Examples
SERC Starting Point Project: Teaching Introductory Geoscience Carleton College “Practicing scientists define problems, develop methodologies and strategies to investigate those problems, and present their findings to persuade other members of their community of the reasonableness of their findings. Investigative case based learning strategies involve a corresponding three phase process based on problem posing, problem solving, and peer persuasion. Each phase of ICBL and key strategies are listed below. The links lead to further explanation of these strategies and application to an environmental science case Goodbye Honeybuckets.”
Employing Case-Based Learning
Center for Teaching Excellence University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey “Topics include: introduction to case-based learning; finding, designing and evaluating cases; and methods and tools for case-based teaching. Provides examples of several online case repositories in the health professions plus links to additional resources.”
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National Center for case study teaching in science
Student assessment, evaluating case discussion.
Business school case teachers do it all the time. It’s not uncommon for them to base the final course grade on 50% class participation. And this with 50-70 students in a class! This sends shudders up the spines of most science teachers. Yet, what's so tough about the concept? We are constantly making judgments about the verbal statements of our colleagues, politicians, and even administrators. Why can't we do it for classroom contributions?
Most of our discomfort comes from the subjective nature of the act, something that we scientists work hard to avoid in our work-a-day world. It may be that we are even predisposed to become scientists because we are looking for a structured and quantifiable world. Flowing from this subjective quandary is the fact that we feel we must be able to justify our grades to the students. We are decidedly uncomfortable if we can't show them the numbers. This is one of the reasons that multiple-choice questions have such appeal for some faculty.
But let’s take a look at how the business school people evaluate case discussion. Some of them try to do it in the classroom, making written notes even as the discussion unfolds, using a seating chart, and calling on perhaps 25 students in a period. As you might expect, this usually interferes with running an effective discussion. Other instructors tape-record the discussion and listen to it later in thoughtful contemplation. Most folks, however, sit down shortly after their classes with seating chart in hand and reflect on the discussion. They rank student contributions into categories of excellent, good, or bad, or they may use numbers to evaluate the students from 1 to 4 with 4 being excellent. They may give negative evaluations to people who weren’t prepared or were absent. These numbers are tallied up at the end of the semester to calculate the grade. And that’s as quantified as it gets.
I especially like mathematician/philosopher Blaise Pascal's view of evaluation: “We first distinguish grapes from among fruits, then Muscat grapes, then those from Condrieu, then from Desargues, then the particular graft. Is that all? Has a vine ever produced two bunches alike, and has any bunch produced two grapes alike?” “I have never judged anything in exactly the same way,” Pascal continues. “I cannot judge a work while doing it. I must do as painters do and stand back, but not too far. How far then? Guess ....”
The simplest solution to case work evaluation is to forget classroom participation and grade everything on the basis of familiar criteria, say papers or presentations. This puts professors back in familiar territory. Even business and law school professors use this strategy as part of their grades. I’m all for this. In fact, I always ask for some written analysis in the form of journals, papers, and reports. Along with an exam, these are my sole bases for grades. I don’t lose sleep over evaluating class participation.
You can give any sort of exam in a case-based course, including multiple-choice, but doesn’t it make more sense to have at least part of the exam a case? If you have used cases all semester and trained students in case analysis, surely you should consider a case-based test. Too often we test on different things than we have taught.
Some of the best case studies involve small group work and group projects. In fact, I strongly believe teaching cases this way is the most user-friendly for science faculty and the most rewarding for students. Nonetheless, even some aficionados of group work don’t like group projects. They say, how do you know who’s doing the work? Even if they ask for a group project, they argue against grading it. They rely strictly on individual marks for a final grade determination. I’m on the other side of the fence. I believe that great projects can come from teams, and if you don't grade the work, what is the incentive for participating? Moreover, employers report that most people are fired because they can’t get along with other people. Not all of us are naturally team players. Practice helps. So, I’m all for group work including teamwork during quizzes where groups almost invariably perform better than the best individuals. But we have to build in safeguards like peer evaluation.
“Social loafers” and “compulsive workhorses” exist in every class. When you form groups such as those in Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and Team Learning (the best ways to teach cases, in my judgment), you must set up a system to monitor the situation. In PBL it is common to have tutors who can make evaluations. Still, I believe it is essential to use peer evaluations. I use a method that I picked up from Larry Michaelsen in the School of Management at the University of Oklahoma.
At the beginning of every course I explain the use of these anonymous peer evaluations. I show students the form that they will fill out at the end of the semester ( Table 1 ). Then they will be asked to name their teammates and give each one the number of points that reflects their contributions to group projects throughout the course. Say the group has five team members then each person would have 40 points to give to the other four members of his team. If a student feels that everyone has contributed equally to the group projects, then he should give each teammate 10 points. Obviously, if everyone in the team feels the same way about everyone else, they all will get an average score of 10 points. Persons with an average of 10 points will receive 100% of the group score for any group project.
But suppose that things aren’t going well. Maybe John has not pulled his weight in the group projects and ends up with an average score of 8, and Sarah has done more than her share and receives a 12. What then? Well, John gets only 80% of any group grade and Sarah receives 120%.
There are some additional rules that I use. One is that a student cannot give anyone more than 15 points. This is to stop a student from saving his friend John by giving him 40 points. Another is that any student receiving an average of seven or less will fail my course. This is designed to stop a student from doing nothing in the group because he is simply trying to slip by with a barely passing grade and is willing to undermine the group effort. Here are some observations after many years of using peer evaluations:
- Most students are reasonable. Although they are inclined to be generous, most give scores between 8 and 12.
- Occasionally, I receive a set of scores where one isn’t consistent with the others. For example, a student may get a 10, 10, 11, and a 5. Obviously, something is amiss here. When this happens, I set the odd number aside and use the other scores for the average.
- About one group in five initially will have problems because one or two people are not participating adequately or are habitually late or absent. These problems can be corrected.
- It is essential that you give a practice peer evaluation about one-third or one-half of the way through the semester. The students fill these out and you tally them and give the students their average scores. You must carefully remind everyone what these numbers mean, and if they don't like the results, they must do something to improve their scores. I tell them that it is no use blaming their group members for their perceptions. They must fix things, perhaps by talking to the group and asking how to compensate for their previous weakness. Also, I will always speak privately to any student who is in danger. These practice evaluations almost always significantly improve the group performance. Tardiness virtually stops and attendance is at least 95%.
© 1999-2023 National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University at Buffalo. All Rights Reserved.
National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science (NCCSTS)
The mission of the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science (NCCSTS) at SUNY-Buffalo is to promote the development and dissemination of materials and practices for case teaching in the sciences.
Click on the links below to learn more about-
- a bibliography of case studies,
- faculty perceptions on the benefit of teaching case studies, and
- research articles
Below is a sample work flow showing how to navigate the NCCSTS case collection. Enjoy!
1. Start at the NCCSTS homepage ( http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/ ). Then click on Case Collection (red arrow, upper right).
2. Clicking on Case Collection takes you to the Keyword Search page. As shown below use the dropdown arrows to narrow your search parameters. As an example I chose Organic Chemistry under Subject Heading.
3. Below is a partial list (6/25) of case studies categorized under the Subject Heading choice, Organic Chemistry.
4. Click on a case study. I chose The Case of the Missing Bees (not shown in the partial list above). Below is a partial screenshot of the case study description. To download the case study click on the DOWNLOAD CASE icon (red arrow, upper right).
5. Below is the the top of the first page of the case study, The Case of the Missing Bees .
6. And of course make sure to review and adhere to the Permitted and Standard Uses and Permissions ( http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/collection/uses/ ).
National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science
Case study title: The Case of the Missing Bees: High Fructose Corn Syrup and Colony Collapse Disorder
Case study authors: Jeffri C. Bohlscheid and Frank J. Dinan
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Why Homeostasis Is Important to Everyday Activities
By Brian J. Dingmann
Share Start a Discussion
In this case study, a college student named "Blake" winds up in the emergency room after he experiences a panic attack brought on by drinking a mixture of beverages containing caffeine and alcohol. His panic attack results in a severe episode of hyperventilation. The alcohol he has consumed has the added effect of making the situation worse by impairing Blake's perception and judgment. Through this case study, students learn about acid/base chemistry as they explore hyperventilation, the Bohr effect, the Haldane effect, and how alcohol and stimulants such as caffeine can affect the acid-base balance in the body. This case was originally designed for a flipped classroom, and the associated videos, including one developed by the author, contain foundational information to lead students through basic chemistry and help them connect daily activities to homeostasis and the Bohr effect. Originally written for a general biology course in which general chemistry concepts are discussed, the case could easily be modified for use in an anatomy and physiology course.
- Describe the difference between an acid and a base.
- Apply pH to blood chemistry.
- Analyze and predict changes in oxygen binding affinity as it relates to the Bohr effect.
- Compare and contrast the Bohr and Haldane effects.
- Apply respiratory and metabolic acidosis to acid-base chemistry.
homeostasis; pH; acids; bases; Bohr effect; Haldane effect; caffeine; panic attack;, stimulants; energy drinks; alcohol
Undergraduate lower division
Teaching Notes & Answer Key
Case teaching notes are protected and access to them is limited to paid subscribed instructors. To become a paid subscriber, purchase a subscription here .
Teaching notes are intended to help teachers select and adopt a case. They typically include a summary of the case, teaching objectives, information about the intended audience, details about how the case may be taught, and a list of references and resources.
Answer Keys are protected and access to them is limited to paid subscribed instructors. To become a paid subscriber, purchase a subscription here .
Download Answer Key
Materials & Media
- Acids, Bases and pH This video explains pH as the power of hydrogen and how increases in the hydronium ion (or hydrogen ion) concentration can lower the pH and create acids. The video also explains how the reverse is true. In addition, an analysis of a strong acid and strong base is included. Running time: 8:53 min. Produced by Bozeman Science, 2013.
- Acid-Base Chemistry, pH, and the Human Body Created by the author specifically for this case, this brief video applies the definitions of acids, bases, and pH to a scenario in which blood chemistry is altered in our body. Running time: 4:07 min. Created by Brian J. Dingmann for the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, 2017.
- Bohr Effect vs. Haldane Effect This video takes a close look at how some friendly competition for hemoglobin allows the body to more efficiently move oxygen and carbon dioxide around. Running time: 13:52 min. Produced by the Khan Academy, 2012.
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Three Steps to Adapt Case Studies for Synchronous and Asynchronous Online Learning †
1 Clarke University, Science and Mathematics Department, Dubuque, IA 52001
2 United States Military Academy, Department of Chemistry & Life Science, West Point, NY 10996
Adam J. Kleinschmit
3 University of Dubuque, Department of Natural and Applied Sciences, Dubuque, IA 52001
Monica M. Gaudier-Diaz
4 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Psychology & Neuroscience, Chapel Hill, NC 27599
5 Fordham University, Department of Biology, Bronx, NY 10458
6 Emory University, Department of Biology, Atlanta, GA 30322
Carlos C. Goller
7 North Carolina State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Raleigh, NC 27695
Pandemic SARS-CoV-2 has ushered in a renewed interest in science along with rapid changes to educational modalities. While technology provides a variety of ways to convey learning resources, the incorporation of alternate modalities can be intimidating for those designing curricula. We propose strategies to permit rapid adaptation of curricula to achieve learning in synchronous, asynchronous, or hybrid learning environments. Case studies are a way to engage students in realistic scenarios that contextualize concepts and highlight applications in the life sciences. While case studies are commonly available and adaptable to course goals, the practical considerations of how to deliver and assess cases in online and blended environments can instill panic. Here we review existing resources and our collective experiences creating, adapting, and assessing case materials across different modalities. We discuss the benefits of using case studies and provide tips for implementation. Further, we describe functional examples of a three-step process to prepare cases with defined outcomes for individual student preparation, collaborative learning, and individual student synthesis to create an inclusive learning experience, whether in a traditional or remote learning environment.
Case studies come in many forms but typically have a narrative to engage students and bring course content to life through storytelling ( 1 ). They encourage active learning, peer interactions, and critical thinking ( 2 ). Case studies can be used in various teaching modalities, including online synchronous or asynchronous lectures and labs. Many cases are available for face-to-face instruction ( Appendix 1, Table S1 ); here we outline best practices ( 3 , 4 ) for adapting cases for the online classroom, with examples from our own teaching.
Case studies are often modified prior to implementation. Here we provide ideas for adapting cases for online teaching with a three-step implementation approach: individual student preparation, collaborative learning, and individual student synthesis ( Fig. 1 ). We also use examples from our experiences teaching case studies online, focusing on a case implemented with 120 students imagining themselves as researchers conducting epileptic drug discovery research. Students use the Allen Cell Types Database ( https://celltypes.brain-map.org/ ), analyzing data on temporal lobe neuron excitability and how cells in this seizure-prone area may be distinct from other brain regions (contact SR for case access).
Three-step implementation framework for integrating case studies in the distance learning classroom.
Step 1: Individual student preparation
Individual student preparation is paramount across modalities. With online case teaching, we recommend a flipped approach in which students independently examine key background information asynchronously before engaging in active learning with peers ( http://rtalbert.org/how-to-define-flipped-learning/ ) ( 5 , 6 ). Guidelines and examples for delivering flipped cases using videos are available from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science ( 7 ) and include the suggestion that videos be used to set the scene (introduce the story), as well as to present content. Table S2 (Appendix 1) highlights resources for creating or finding videos. Brame ( 8 ) provides information on producing effective videos, including reducing cognitive load, increasing student engagement, and promoting active learning (e.g., keep videos short and focused, use both verbal and visual cues, incorporate videos into assignments). Logistical details such as planning the video, video production tools and copyright are emphasized in Prud’homme-Généreux et al . ( 6 ).
If videos are not your style and/or students have limited bandwidth, provide documents (Word or PowerPoint) within the Learning Management System (LMS) for each part or step of the case. Adding graded questions is essential to make learning more active and demonstrates your expectation that students engage with the materials. These assignments provide a common framework for students before class and low-stakes formative assessment of learning to help faculty screen for common misconceptions (“Just-in-Time Teaching”; https://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/justintime/index.html ). For instance, within the epilepsy case study, students read a neuroscience text excerpt, watched a video, and answered questions as they explored the Allen Cell Types database. The instructors then reviewed student comprehension and addressed misconceptions during the synchronous session.
Step 2: Collaborative learning replaces face-to-face class and labs
The next step is the online collaborative experience. Be prepared for students who cannot participate synchronously. Have asynchronous alternatives ready and/or record synchronous sessions ( https://www.idra.org/resource-center/ensuring-equity-in-online-learning-newsletter-article/ ). Whether students meet synchronously or asynchronously, we find small group work to be particularly beneficial. The expectation is that students will interact, share information, and challenge each other’s ideas ( Appendix 1, Table S3 ) ( 9 ). Research suggests outcomes are improved with demographically heterogeneous groups ( 10 ). However, if groups meet asynchronously, it may be best to let students choose teams based on availability (Y. Lin, personal communication). Group work might include discussion questions or other active learning such as jigsaws, gallery walks, or collaborative concept mapping (11–13; https://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/gallerywalk/what.html ). Another option is data collection and analysis, which is a core biology competency ( 14 ) and essential for remote lab instruction. All of these can be adjusted for synchronous or asynchronous online learning with the appropriate collaborative technology ( Appendix 1, Table S3 ).
It is important to engage all students in group work. One technique is to assign each student a specific role in the group; this improves individual learning ( 15 ). Roles could align to POGIL (Manager, Recorder, Spokesperson, and Reflector; https://ctl.wustl.edu/resources/using-roles-in-group-work/ ). In an asynchronous course, one colleague assigns students to be the Point Person, Weekly Summarizer, and Explorer, the last of whom discovers and shares related information from a source other than those provided (L. Rettenmeier, submitted for publication). Note that in asynchronous discussions, setting deadlines for initial sharing and for later wrap-up is necessary so students can respond to peers in a timely fashion.
Faculty-student conversation during breakout sessions can help identify confusing concepts. These can be addressed by sending a chat message to the whole class. Teaching assistants can assist with this in large classes. Written work could also increase engagement but is not a substitute for faculty-student interaction that prods students toward higher-level thinking. Polling can be used for a quick assessment of comprehension through multiple-choice or short-answer questions, such as “type one word to describe the most important thing you learned about X.”
For the epilepsy case, students were assigned to Zoom breakout rooms to collect data and share it via a collaborative class Google document. Individual roles were not assigned during data collection, but each student was expected to contribute data from a specified number of neurons. The data analysis portion could have benefited from assigned roles, for example, a Recorder to maintain a chronology of data input and findings, an Explorer to perform the data analysis, and a Statistician to manage statistical tools and interpretations. Data collection and analysis may present challenges for large classes as greater numbers of student groups require additional faculty oversight. A parallel online forum (Piazza) allowed students to post questions and get answers from instructors and other students.
Step 3: Individual student synthesis
After the collaborative learning, hold students accountable with individual work ( 3 , 4 ) in which they apply knowledge in new ways. For instance, students may use newly learned concepts and apply them to a novel scenario, propose additional experiments, or extend the same approach to a new story or dataset. Students could also reflect on how the case relates broadly to science and the community ( 16 ). These tasks encourage higher-order skills ( 17 ). Ideally, students should submit individual short answers graded for correctness, but this might prove difficult in large classes. Alternatives include polling to assess understanding, work submitted by groups, or individual quizzes administered within the LMS ( 4 ). Appendix 2 provides additional suggestions for summative assessment and comments on technology issues. While the epilepsy study required group submissions of the entire case once completed, other cases that we have implemented have incorporated a variety of options to assess the learning goals.
Federal guidelines suggest two to three hours of student work for every hour in class ( 18 ). Online case study teaching can follow these guidelines with two to three hours combined preparation and follow-up for each synchronous hour (and the equivalent summed hours for asynchronous online teaching). The epilepsy case involved one hour of independent, asynchronous preparation, one hour of synchronous group work with the professor present, and one hour of asynchronous group work to wrap up.
Our classrooms may look different in the era of physical distancing and stressed bandwidth, but we can still enhance student learning and reinforce course content using case studies. By following the three-step approach ( Fig. 1 ), we encourage students to progress from lower to higher levels within Bloom’s taxonomy of learning and also provide multiple assessment opportunities. Students (i) achieve foundational knowledge through individual student preparation (remember and understand); (ii) tackle activities collaboratively following specific roles and responsibilities (understand, apply, analyze); and (iii) synthesize new conceptual understanding (analyze, evaluate, create). Together, these tips and resources provide a framework for the use of case studies to promote active student learning through both individual and group work regardless of course modality.
Appendix 1: additional resources, appendix 2: summative assessment and technology issues, acknowledgments.
We appreciate the patience, energy, and wonderful ideas students provided. We the authors are Case Fellows as part of the High-throughput Discovery Science & Inquiry-based Case Studies for Today’s Students (HITS). The case study described here is one of many created through the NSF HITS RCN network (NSF award 1730317). Our goal is to raise awareness of the use of high-throughput approaches and datasets using case study pedagogies. We have no conflicts of interest to declare.
† Supplemental materials available at http://asmscience.org/jmbe
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Science and Technology Centers
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The U.S. National Science Foundation’s Science and Technology Centers: Integrative Partnerships program supports innovative, complex and potentially transformative research and education projects that require large-scale, long-term awards.
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Credit: National Science Foundation
NSF announces $120 million in funding to create 4 new Science and Technology Centers
The U. S. National Science Foundation has announced a $120 million investment over five-year to support four new Science and Technology Centers (STCs). Since program inception in 1987, the STC: Integrative Partnerships program has supported exceptionally innovative, complex research and education projects that have opened up new areas of science and engineering and developed breakthrough technologies.
"Scientific discovery is the engine that drives human progress and underlies all of the technologies that we benefit from today," said NSF Director Sethuraman Panchanathan. "NSF's Science and Technology Centers enable our most creative scientists and engineers to open new vistas of scientific inquiry and make the discoveries that will keep the U.S. in the forefront of scientific discovery. I am delighted to see the impressive originality in ideas and approaches in these new STCs and know they will have a tremendous impact."
The new centers will support advances in fields ranging from cell biology and complex materials to new applications of sound waves and environmental change. Each awardee will receive approximately $6 million per year over a five-year period, with the possibility of continual funding for up to five additional years.
Click on the Center to learn more about them:
- Science and Technology Center for Quantitative Cell Biology (QCB)
L ed by researchers from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Harvard Medical School; and the J. Craig Venter Institute.
The center aims to bring together expertise across cell and structural biology, chemistry, physics, engineering and computer science to develop whole-cell models that will transform our understanding of how cells function. Since cells are the fundamental units of all organisms, whole-cell models will provide important information about cellular functions in animals, plants, bacteria and fungi. Whole-cell models may also be used to compare the functions of healthy and diseased cells, leading to a better understanding of what goes wrong in diseased cells.
New Frontiers of Sound (NewFoS) Science and Technology Center
- Led by researchers from the University of Arizona; California Institute of Technology; The City University of New York; the Georgia Institute of Technology; University of Alaska Fairbanks; UCLA; University of Colorado Boulder; Wayne State University; and Spelman College.
- Recent advances have revealed that topological acoustics (TA) phenomena possess extraordinary properties, such as extreme resistance to disorder, such that TA waves can be transmitted in obstructed domains without generating echoes or reflections. Exploiting surprising links between acoustics and quantum mechanics, the NewFoS STC will tackle grand challenges using TA focused on three main areas: quantum information science; the future of wireless communication; and applying TA to bypass remote sensing limitations in the physical world at scale for issues such as climate change.
- Center for Complex Particle Systems (COMPASS)
Led by a team of researchers from the University of Michigan; University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Northeastern University; University of Southern California; Wayne State University; Chicago State University; North Carolina State University; and Formative Evaluation Research Associates.
The "ink" used in advanced manufacturing is shapeable and yet consists of diverse, often non-spherical, particles. This "particle-based matter" is the focus of COMPASS, which will bring together a team of theoretical, experimental and computational researchers to develop the science and technology necessary to establish a much deeper understanding of particle-based matter as complex systems. By leveraging the relationship between complexity and functionality, the center aims to ignite a revolution in 3D printing and other forms of additive manufacturing with materials with customizable properties.
- Center for Braiding Indigenous Knowledges and Science (CBIKS)
L ed by a team of researchers from the University of Massachusetts Amherst; Northern Arizona University; University of Maine; University of California, Santa Cruz; University of Washington; Montana State University; Western Washington University; Huliauapaʻa; Alaska Pacific University; New York University; College of Menominee Nation; University of Michigan; Gedakina; and SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry. CBIKS also includes partnerships with 57 Indigenous communities.
The center aims to advance knowledge about environmental change and its effects on food and cultural systems at local and global scales by combining Indigenous knowledge with Western science in effective, ethical and novel ways. Eight regional research hubs include partners from multiple institutions across the social sciences, geosciences and environmental sciences, as well as Indigenous communities. CBIKS aims to advance not only what researchers know about interactions between the natural world and human societies, but also how to investigate and address related societal challenges.
Past Science and Technology Center news
New Science and Technology Centers to address vexing societal problems
Researchers from the Center for Integrated Quantum Materials selected for the Physics World Breakthrough of the Year Award December 13, 2018
Deborah Estrin, Director of the Center for Embedded Networked Sensing, an STC class 2002, is recipient of 2018 MacArthur Fellows award October 3, 2018
Gérard Mourou, Director of the Center for Ultafast Optical Science, STC class 1991 awarded Nobel Prize in Physics 2018 October 2, 2018
Historic $12.7 Million Gift to BEACON Science and Technology Center December 8, 2016
Dr. Victoria Orphan, a science leader at the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI), received the MacArthur “genius” grant November 3, 2016
NSF awards $94 million to create four new Science and Technology Centers September 26, 2016
Established in 1987, the Science and Technology Centers program has grown from a new idea into a vital, interdisciplinary network. It has catalyzed breakthroughs, built bridges of exchange with industry, spun off new technologies and businesses, and trained young scientists and engineers.
The Science and Technology Centers (STC): Integrative Partnerships program supports exceptionally innovative, complex research and education projects that require large-scale, long-term awards. STCs focus on creating new scientific paradigms, establishing entirely new scientific disciplines and developing transformative technologies which have the potential for broad scientific or societal impact. STCs conduct world-class research through partnerships among institutions of higher education, national laboratories, industrial organizations, other public or private entities , and via international collaborations, as appropriate. They provide a means to undertake potentially groundbreaking investigations at the interfaces of disciplines and/or highly innovative approaches within disciplines. STCs may involve any area of science and engineering that NSF supports. STC investments support the NSF vision of creating and exploiting new concepts in science and engineering and providing global leadership in research and education.
NSF's Science and Technology Centers:
- Conduct world-class research through partnerships among academic institutions, national laboratories, industrial organizations and other entities, both domestically and internationally.
- Undertake significant investigations at the interfaces of disciplines and/or using fresh approaches within disciplines.
- Can involve any areas of science and engineering that NSF supports.
Developing STEM Talent
Credit: Arka Majumdar, University of Washington
Centers provide a rich environment for encouraging future scientists, engineers, and educators to take risks in pursuing discoveries and new knowledge. STCs foster excellence in education by integrating education and research, and by creating bonds between learning and inquiry so that discovery and creativity fully support the learning process.
NSF expects STCs to both involve individuals who are members of groups that have been traditionally underrepresented in science and engineering at all levels within the Center (faculty, staff, students, and postdoctoral researchers) as well as be a leader in broadening participation in STEM. Individuals who may be underrepresented in STEM include those who identify as women, persons with disabilities, Blacks and African Americans, Hispanics and Latinos, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Other Pacific Islanders. The terms for these racial and ethnic populations are derived from the US government's guidance for federal statistics and administrative reporting ( OMB Statistical Policy Directive No. 15, Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting ). Although these social identities are listed separately, they do not exist in isolation from each other and the intersection of one of more of these social identities may need to be considered when designing plans for diversity, equity, and inclusion within the STC Center. Centers may use either proven, or innovative mechanisms based on the relevant literature, to address issues such as recruitment, retention, success, and career progression of all individuals in the Center.
Class of 2023.
- New Frontiers of Sound Science and Technology Center (NewFoS)
Class of 2021
- Center for Chemical Currencies of a Microbial Planet ( C- CoMP )
- Science and Technologies for Phosphorus Sustainability Center ( STEPS )
- Center for Learning the Earth with Artificial Intelligence and Physics ( LEAP )
- Center for OLDest Ice EXploration ( COLDEX )
- Center for Research On Programmable Plant Systems ( CROPPS )
- Center for Integration of Modern Optoelectronic Materials on Demand ( IMOD )
Class of 2016
- Center for Bright Beams ( CBB )
- Center for Cellular Construction ( CCC )
- Center for Engineering MechanoBiology ( CEMB )
- Science and Technology Center on Real-Time Functional Imaging ( STROBE )
Class of 2013
- Biology with X-Ray Free Electron Lasers ( BioXFel )
- Center for Brains, Minds and Machines: the Science and Technology of Intelligence ( CBMM )
- Center for Integrated Quantum Materials ( CIQM )
Annual and Final Report Requirements for Science and Technology Centers (PDF, 234.2 KB)
To ensure children thrive from the start
- 615-322-6397 Email
- Ken Lau named 2023 Stanley Cohen Innovation Fund Awardee
- Vanderbilt Law School announces creation of AI Legal Lab
- Heard Libraries’ new hip-hop print collection engages critical issues in U.S. politics and culture
Oct 23, 2023, 2:37 PM
By Jenna Somers
Early in her career, Cynthia Osborne learned that the pathway to opportunity is paved by much more than a quality education. In 1994, a few years after graduating from college, Osborne began teaching middle school while also obtaining her master’s degree in education. “My students were largely from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds, and they taught me that while their classroom learning and my instruction mattered, it didn’t matter nearly as much as what was going on in their communities and in their families. That drew me to want to understand how families and communities can be better supported, so that all kids have the experiences that they deserve,” said Osborne, professor of early childhood education and policy and executive director of the Prenatal-to-3 Policy Impact Center at Vanderbilt Peabody College of education and human development .
Osborne earned a master’s degree in public policy at Harvard University (1999) and a Ph.D. in demography and public affairs at Princeton University (2003). While there, she collaborated on the Future of Families and Child Wellbeing Study (formerly the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study), which sharpened her desire to understand how public policies shape opportunity and outcomes, especially from birth.
In 2005, Osborne became a professor at the LBJ School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin. She conducted studies for Texas state agencies that wanted to know whether the policies they implemented were strengthening families and what more they could do to support families. These collaborations catalyzed Osborne’s focus on state-level policies, especially on how states decide who to serve and in what way.
“We had the opportunity to pursue a 51-state strategy—50 states and Washington, D.C.—to answer bigger questions about what states can do to ensure that kids get off to a healthy start,” Osborne said. “I was really excited about that opportunity to—not just think about the outside factors that are helping kids to learn in school, which are important—but to think about that system of care that helps kids really thrive across all health and well-being measures. That’s why I launched the Prenatal-to-3 Policy Impact Center .”
A resource for states
Osborne started the Prenatal-to-3 Policy Impact Center in 2019 at the University of Texas at Austin and brought it to Vanderbilt when she joined the Peabody College faculty in 2022. With 30 full-time staff and several student-workers, the center acts as a leading resource for states as they adopt and implement the most effective policies to ensure that all children thrive from the start.
According to Osborne, decades of research on the science of the developing child demonstrate that the prenatal-to-three period is the most rapid and sensitive developmental period that affects future health and well-being, and that certain environmental conditions are necessary to ensure children thrive even before they are born. These conditions are reflected in the center’s eight policy goals .
“We are not neutral to the policy goals, but we are neutral to the policy solutions that will help achieve those goals, and we are driven by evidence to inform us on what those solutions are,” Osborne said. “We don’t advocate for states to implement these solutions. We think of ourselves as educators and as a resource to help states meet their goals, and we approach them with the evidence on policies and programs and a better understanding of the problems they want to solve.”
The center’s policy team compiles and disseminates evidence through its Policy Clearinghouse and Prenatal-to-3 State Policy Roadmap , the center’s two primary resources for policy leaders, scholars, advocates, and funders. The Clearinghouse provides comprehensive reviews of the evidence on state-level policies and strategies intended to strengthen outcomes for infants, toddlers, and their families. Through their review process, the policy team identifies the most effective policies and strategies—meaning they improve outcomes related to at least one of the center’s policy goals—and includes these in the Roadmap, the center’s culminating project that helps states understand the effective policies and strategies and track their progress toward adopting and implementing them. The most recent edition of the Roadmap was released in October.
“We want the Roadmap to be a living document that will continue to change over time,” said Abby Lane, policy director. “It includes things that we know work, but just because something isn’t on the Roadmap doesn’t mean that it is ineffective. We might not have enough rigorous research yet to include it, or there might be policy levers that exist beyond the state level. So, we want states to use the Roadmap as a guide. We’re not saying, ‘Do only these things.’ We’re saying, ‘We know these things work, so start here.’”
Since the evidence base is only as large as what has been studied to date, the center’s research and evaluation team further builds the evidence by conducting research on state-level policies and programs and working with clients to evaluate their programs.
“What works, for whom, and why?”
These questions underlie the meaning of “effective” policy solutions and guide the center’s work.
“The Clearinghouse is all about understanding what works, for whom, and why,” Lane said. “We are interested in a specific subset of research that shows causal connections, so that we can make the case that if a state does A, then B will happen.”
But beyond establishing “what works,” evidence must demonstrate “for whom” a policy solution works. This is a question of equity, an aim of the center that underpins its eight guiding goals.
“Just as we’re not neutral to the policy goals—because the science on those is clear—we’re not neutral about the existence of inequities. The science and history are clear about the role of systemic racism,” Lane said. “If you look at a lot of the measures we report in the Roadmap, you can really see disparities in outcomes along racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic lines. The fact that those are systemic is the problem and indicates that there is something to correct.”
Stated another way, Jennifer Huffman, director of research, explained that these questions guide the research and evaluation team’s work as they examine policies and programs for equality and equity.
“With the first question, we’re asking does this policy or program deliver targeted outcomes for all families? If it’s effective, then it improves circumstances for all families. But the next question allows us to dig a little deeper. Is the gap in disparities between systematically marginalized families and everyone else closing? For groups who are not doing as well, we need to see policies and programs work better for them to say that a policy or program is reducing disparities and promoting equitable outcomes,” Huffman said.
The most effective policy
Paid family leave improves outcomes in seven of the center’s policy goals, making it the most effective policy included in the Roadmap. According to Osborne, it is one of the most pro-work and pro-family policies. Parents are more likely to return to pre-birth employment and receive wage increases, which increase tax revenues. It also improves health outcomes for the mother and child as well as bonding time, which supports healthier brain development in the infant. Moreover, Osborne says the program pays for itself usually through a payroll tax to which the employer and employee contribute, with large returns on their investment.
Because paid family leave is critical to both families and employers and it continues to be implemented in various ways across states, there is an urgent need for further research. Most of the evidence on paid family leave that the center has reviewed comes from California, the first state to implement the policy, initially at a minimum of six weeks, which is the threshold for effectiveness.
“Paid parental leave is a good example where we have robust evidence on its effectiveness, but we’ve identified gaps in the research that we’re working to fill. States now have longer policies and higher wage replacement rates, particularly for lower-income workers, so, we’re looking at national-level data to understand the outcomes in states that haven’t been studied as closely because their paid leave programs are newer,” Huffman said.
Partnering to solve the child care crisis
Child care subsidies are another of the most effective strategies in the Roadmap. They help low-income families whose parents are enrolled in education or training programs pay for child care. As important as child care subsidies are for many families, they address just one part of a much larger problem—the child care market crisis, which was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Through the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, the federal government subsidized child care centers, but, according to Osborne, states only have access to this federal funding for another three years, so they need to figure out now how to replace it with more permanent support.
“We’re working with states to better understand what it is they’re doing, and how they can more effectively ensure that families have access to affordable child care, that providers can keep their doors open, and that we can encourage educators to stay in the child care market,” Osborne said.
Texas is an example of one state that recently sought the center’s services. In 2021, the legislature charged the Texas Workforce Commission with developing a plan to support early childhood educators. The TWC collaborated with the center to convene the 2022 Texas Child Care Strategic Plan Workgroup—a group of 27 Texas child care experts—and administer the 2022 Texas Child Care Director Survey to more than 800 program directors across the state. Feedback from the workgroup and data from the surveys resulted in 11 recommendations for stabilizing the child care industry and improving workforce quality. The center also produced a series of research briefs based on the recommendations report, which describe the problems of low wages , lack of access to benefits for educators , instability in the industry due to retention challenges , and insufficient state subsidies for care .
“The report is being used by a lot of stakeholder groups as well as some regional level workforce boards in the State of Texas who are working to implement some of the recommendations at a regional level,” Huffman said. “Our work speaks to how many states are working to improve child care. There are numerous struggles in the industry across the country, so I feel like our work fits into a national conversation in an important way. I’m excited that we got to work with partners in Texas to help them address their child care industry needs.”
Answering the bigger question
“In academia, the work of the Prenatal-to-3 Policy Impact Center is relatively unique. Our staff must understand the concerns of policymakers, advocates, and educators—those on the ground who live and breathe this work. It’s our responsibility to learn their language and needs and to translate the complicated, nuanced science into actionable solutions that best suit them in meeting their goals,” Osborne said.
“It’s our responsibility to…translate the complicated, nuanced science into actionable solutions…”
Engaging in this type of research, that directly impacts the lives of children, is at the core of Peabody’s mission and the work of faculty across the college’s five departments. “That is why I am thrilled to be at Vanderbilt, to collaborate with Peabody’s early childhood experts across the college. We can work together to answer a question bigger than any one field can answer or any one scholar’s lifetime work can address. That is, how do we get all children to show up to school ready to succeed, and how do we ensure that the investments we make early don’t fade out but are sustained or grow over time?” Osborne said.
Answering these questions requires the collaboration of experts in education policy, developmental psychology and educational neuroscience, behavioral science, early childhood mental health, and much more. With accomplished faculty in all these fields, Peabody is currently developing plans for a new college-wide early childhood strategic initiative that will strengthen cross-departmental collaborations and serve as a community resource.
“Supporting our community will be an important mission of the new center,” Osborne said. “We want to both learn from the Metro Nashville area and to contribute in any way we can to ensure that all children in this area are thriving, with the hope that Nashville becomes a model in early childhood investments and practices for other Southern cities.”
Osborne selected as Aspen Institute Ascend Fellow
Prenatal-to-3 Policy Impact Center Report: State Policies Cause Dramatic Variation in Child Wellbeing and Family Resilience
Prenatal-to-3 Policy Impact Center releases Child Care in Crisis: Texas Case Study
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