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MLA Endnotes and Footnotes
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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
Because long explanatory notes can be distracting to readers, most academic style guidelines (including MLA and APA, the American Psychological Association) recommend limited use of endnotes/footnotes. However, certain publishers encourage or require note references in lieu of parenthetical references.
MLA discourages extensive use of explanatory or digressive notes. MLA style does, however, allow you to use endnotes or footnotes for bibliographic notes , which refer to other publications your readers may consult. The following are some examples:
To cite a lengthy string of sources.
¹See Said, Culture and Imperialism and Orientalism ; Serres, The Natural Contract ; Foucault, The Foucault Reader , esp. Part II.
²For more material related to Postcolonial Studies and Technology, see McClintock, Imperial Leather ; De Landa, War in the Age of Intelligent Machines.
To explain an unusual documentation practice.
³Italicised words denote translations for which there are no clear equivalents in the original Chinese.
To flag editions and translations used. Editions and translations usually require a note only when more than one edition or translation is cited. This can be done by placing a note in the text where the work is first referenced. Alternatively, an initial and unnumbered note may be created.
⁴Citations of The Odyssey refer to Emily Wilson’s translated version unless otherwise noted.
⁵Translations are provided by Emily Wilson unless otherwise noted.
You can also use endnotes/footnotes for occasional explanatory notes (also known as content notes), which refer to brief additional information that might be too digressive for the main text:
To amplify. Writers may feel that amplifying certain sections of their content will allow readers to better understand the context which affected/affects the following circumstances.
¹Kujou and Yanagi are often confused by their misinterpretation of each other’s words, actions, and interactions with others.
²Beach considers Readicide to be a necessary read for all incoming Student Teachers, including it in recommended words for all his students.
³Culler makes it clear that “Literature” is “an institutional label that gives us reason to expect that the results of our reading efforts will be ‘worth it’” (28).
To explain word choice.
⁴She refers here to a branch of physiological research.
⁵He chose to translate the verb (first translated by Yang as “to feel”) as “to understand” to point to the character development.
To justify the scope of your study. Justifying the scope of your study can help readers better understand what to expect from reading your work by specifically pointing to what will or will not be explored, and why.
⁶Whether or not Beowulf as a character is justified in his actions is not relevant to my point.
⁷The efforts of decolonization are beyond the extent of my essay, but I point readers to Garvey’s work.
To provide more examples.
⁸Readers can think about Atwood’s inclusion of insects in her literary work
⁹This same idea applies to queer youth, as Chelsea Monheim’s “Percieved social norms and acceptance of transgender students in gendered restrooms” addresses.
To provide counterexamples.
¹⁰Bankfeld (99-102) calls for an alternative call to action.
To identity of comment on allusions.
¹¹The reference to ‘Westword’ in Iron Man 3 recalls the 1973 movie Westworld, starring Yul Brynner as a killing cyborg.
To point to an area of future research.
¹²More extensive research remains to be done on this subject.
To identify authors whose names appear as et al. in documentation.
¹³The contributing authors of Teaching Literature to Adolescents are Deborah Appleman, Bob Fecho, and Rob Simon.
¹⁴Anna Turner, from a local veterinary clinic, brought distinctions between small and large animal care to my attention.
Numbering endnotes and footnotes in the document body
MLA notes may be styled either as footnotes or endnotes. Endnotes and footnotes in MLA format are indicated in-text by superscript Arabic numbers after the punctuation of the phrase or clause to which the note refers:
Note that when a long dash appears in the text, the footnote/endnote number appears before the dash:
Do not use asterisks (*), angle brackets (>), or other symbols for note references. The list of endnotes and footnotes (either of which, for papers submitted for publication, should be listed on a separate page, as indicated below) should correspond to the note references in the text. Do not use the abbreviation ibid. in a note to refer readers to the information provided in the note right above it.
Placement of Notes in the Text
Use parentheses around page numbers when page numbers interrupt a sentence or are given at the end of a sentence. Similar to parenthetical citations within text, citations in notes are usually placed at the end of a sentence. Alternatively, parenthetical citations may be placed mid-sentence.
¹As Danes (45) and Gilmore (151) argue, caffeinated beverages play a vital role in American business environments.
²Gilmore considers the relationship between caffeine, productivity, and success (151).
Do not place parentheses around page numbers if the note is utilized to direct readers to the location of information. For example:
³See Gilmore 151.
Notes in MLA format are typically indicated in-text by superscript Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, …) after the punctuation mark of the phrase or clause to which the note refers. Whenever possible, place the superscript numbers at the end of sentences. Keep in mind that word processing programs will likely style note numbers in the text and notes section as superscript by default .
Audience members generally responded positively to the racial representation in the musical.¹
Marquis de Lafayette uses a stereotypical White American accent to say the word “anarchy.”²
Aaron Burr advises a young Alexander Hamilton to “talk less, smile more” (16).³
Note that when a dash appears in the text, the note number appears before the dash.
After finding out about her daughter’s passion for music, Cho⁴—surprised, impressed, and a little confused—purchased a piano and allowed her daughter to take lessons.
If a note number must be placed somewhere other than at the end of a sentence or a sentence requires more than one note, the note number should be placed in the least distracting unambiguous spot. For instance:
Placement of a note mid-sentence, for clarity of citations.
Despite the awareness from her past mistakes,⁵ Britney “did it again” and thus continued to face the consequences of her actions (203).
Placement of more than one note in a sentence.
Crystal’s love of farmers markets—especially those located in their hometown (which they support by “getting up at 7am every Saturday to go to” [Webb 21]⁶)—has become apparent even on social media platforms.⁷
Formatting endnotes and footnotes
MLA recommends that all notes be listed on a separate page entitled Notes (centered). Title the page Note if there is only one note. The Notes page should appear before the Works Cited page. This is especially important for papers being submitted for publication.
The notes themselves should be double-spaced and listed by consecutive Arabic numbers that correspond to the notation in the text. The first line of each endnote is indented five spaces, and subsequent lines are flush with the left margin. Place a period and a space after each endnote number, and then provide the appropriate note after the space.
Footnotes (below the text body)
The ninth edition of the MLA Handbook states that notes may be styled either as footnotes or endnotes. See the MLA Style Center for additional guidance on this topic and follow your instructor's or editor's preferences.
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- MLA footnotes and endnotes
MLA Footnotes & Endnotes | Format & Examples
Published on August 23, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on June 16, 2022 by Jack Caulfield.
MLA style requires you to cite sources using MLA in-text citations , not notes. However, you can still use footnotes or endnotes in MLA style for other purposes:
Citing a lot of sources at once
- Providing any extra explanation needed about your citation or translation practice
- Elaborating on ideas
- Providing additional examples that don’t fit into the main text
Footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page, while endnotes appear at the end of the paper, just before the Works Cited list. MLA allows the use of either type, but stick to one or the other.
Any sources you cite in your footnotes or endnotes must also be included in your Works Cited list , just like sources in the main text.
Table of contents
Formatting footnotes and endnotes in mla, explaining citation or translation practice, using notes to elaborate on ideas, providing more examples in notes, frequently asked questions about mla notes.
Both footnotes and endnotes are indicated by superscript numbers. The number usually appears at the end of a sentence, after the period.
If you need to use a note in the middle of a sentence to avoid ambiguity, place the number directly after a punctuation mark (with the exception of the dash , where the number comes before).
Four main factors have been determined as possible characteristics of any successful fictional work: 6 popularity, enduring fame, commercial success and scholarly appeal. Each of the case studies must possess at least one of these. 7
The note itself begins with the corresponding number, again in superscript, followed by a space, and then the content of the note. Notes should be in the same font as the rest of your document, but a smaller font size; the first line of each note is slightly indented.
Your word processing program should allow you to automatically insert footnotes .
Formatting the endnotes page
If you are using endnotes, list them on a separate page directly before the Works Cited list. The title (“Notes” or “Endnotes”) appears centered at the top of the page. Like the rest of an MLA format paper , the endnotes should be double-spaced.
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When you have a lot of sources to cite at once, you can save space in your text by placing them in a note instead. These can be sources for a statement you made in the text, or sources providing supplementary information relevant to the discussion.
Note that you don’t need to use parentheses around the page numbers when the note just consists of a list of sources.
When there’s any important information that might not be immediately obvious from your citations, you can explain it in a note at the first point where it comes up.
For example, you might use your own translations for some texts but not others, or you might cite different editions of a text in different ways. These details can be clarified in notes where relevant.
When you mention something in passing but think more information may be useful to the reader, you can add the extra information, as well as related sources if relevant, in a note.
Bear in mind that long notes with superfluous information can be distracting for readers. Use notes of this kind sparingly, and keep them brief. If a piece of information is essential to your point, you should usually include it in the main text.
Sometimes you have more examples than you can smoothly fit into your text. In those cases, it can be worth placing further examples in a note, if you think they add something to your point. You might also provide a counterexample to acknowledge the limitations of your argument.
No, you should use parenthetical MLA in-text citations to cite sources. Footnotes or endnotes can be used to add extra information that doesn’t fit into your main text, but they’re not needed for citations.
If you need to cite a lot of sources at the same point in the text, though, placing these citations in a note can be a good way to avoid cluttering your text.
In MLA style , footnotes or endnotes can be used to provide additional information that would interrupt the flow of your text.
This can be further examples or developments of ideas you only briefly discuss in the text. You can also use notes to provide additional sources or explain your citation practice.
You don’t have to use any notes at all; only use them to provide relevant information that complements your arguments or helps the reader to understand them.
Footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page. Endnotes appear in a list at the end of the text, just before the reference list or bibliography. Don’t mix footnotes and endnotes in the same document: choose one or the other and use them consistently.
In Chicago notes and bibliography style , you can use either footnotes or endnotes, and citations follow the same format in either case.
In APA and MLA style , footnotes or endnotes are not used for citations, but they can be used to provide additional information.
Some source types, such as books and journal articles , may contain footnotes (or endnotes) with additional information. The following rules apply when citing information from a note in an MLA in-text citation :
- To cite information from a single numbered note, write “n” after the page number, and then write the note number, e.g. (Smith 105n2)
- To cite information from multiple numbered notes, write “nn” and include a range, e.g. (Smith 77nn1–2)
- To cite information from an unnumbered note, write “un” after the page number, with a space in between, e.g. (Jones 250 un)
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MLA Citations (9th ed.)
- General Formatting
- Formatting & Ordering Your Works Cited
- Tables and Illustrations
- Title of Source
- Title of Container
- Publication Date
- Optional Elements
- Parenthetical Documentation
Endnotes and Footnotes
- Avoiding Plagiarism
Endnotes are located at the end of a paper. Footnotes are located at the bottom of a page.
Because long explanatory notes can be distracting to readers, MLA recommends limited use of endnotes and footnotes; but, in some cases, note references may be preferred instead of parenthetical references.
MLA style does allow you to use endnotes or footnotes for bibliographic notes . These notes refer to other publications your readers may consult. Some examples are:
MLA style also allows you to use explanatory notes . These notes are short pieces of additional information that does necessarily add to the purpose of the main text:
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MLA 9th Edition Style Guide: Footnotes and Endnotes
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Footnotes and Endnotes - Guidelines
- Why use Footnotes or Endnotes?
Footnotes are placed at the bottom of each pertinent page. The endnotes are placed at the end of your paper, just before the Works Cited list. Don’t mix footnotes and endnotes in the same document. You must choose one or the other and be consistent throughout your paper. All the sources cited in your footnotes or endnotes must also be included in your Works Cited list.
Formatting Footnotes and Endnotes
- Formatting Footnotes
- Formatting Endnotes
In your main text:
Often the heroine and her eventual husband are kept apart initially by misunderstanding, by the hero’s misguided attraction to another, by financial obstacles, or by family objections. 1
At the bottom of the page:
1. See Green, especially 1-7, and also Hinnant, for further description and discussion of the courtship novel. Green considers Mansfield Park a courtship novel, including it in a list of such novels in the period 1740-1820 (163–64).
Citing a footnote within another source
Books, journal articles and other sources may contain footnotes or endnotes that you would like to cite in your paper. To cite information from a single numbered note, write “n” after the page number, and then write the note number, e.g. (Johnson 93n2). This would be a citation from the second note on page 93 of a source authored by Johnson.
MLA recommends that all endnotes be listed on a separate page entitled Notes (centered). The title of the page is Note if there is only one note . If there are two or more notes then the title of the page is Notes and it should appear before the Works Cited page.
The endnotes are double-spaced and listed consecutively by numbers that correspond to the note in your main text. The first line of each endnote is indented five spaces, and subsequent lines are flush with the left margin. After each endnote number you should place a period, a space, and then the appropriate note.
Endnotes page (examples)
1. As the authors argue literacy can be complete when reading is accompanied by writing..
2. For the purposes of this paper, “science” is defined as it was in nineteenth
century agriculture: conducting experiments and engaging in research.
3. Please note that any direct quotes from the nineteenth century texts are written
in their original form, which may contain grammar mistakes according to twenty-first
century grammar rules.
4. Translations are mine unless otherwise noted.
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A Guide to Using MLA Footnotes and Endnotes
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MLA footnotes and endnotes are used to add additional bibliographical clarity or to provide explanatory information to your paper. MLA recommends a specific format for these notes, how they appear, and guidance on when to use them. Learn how to incorporate MLA footnotes and endnotes below to produce a high-quality paper or essay.
- 1 MLA footnotes and endnotes – In a nutshell
- 2 Definition: MLA footnotes and endnotes
- 3 MLA footnotes and endnotes – Format
- 4 MLA footnotes and endnotes – Multiple sources
- 5 MLA footnotes and endnotes – Citation/translation explanations
- 6 MLA footnotes and endnotes – Elaborate ideas
- 7 MLA footnotes and endnotes – Add more examples
MLA footnotes and endnotes – In a nutshell
- The MLA writing style discourages extensive notes. It does, however, allow the use of notes to give extra information regarding bibliographic sources in order to offer an explanation of your main text.
- Do not use MLA footnotes and endnotes to cite sources, this should be done within the text itself (in parentheses).
- You can choose to use either footnotes or endnotes – just be consistent.
- Format your MLA footnotes and endnotes correctly, with superscript numbers appearing after punctuation marks and clauses.
Definition: MLA footnotes and endnotes
The MLA style always recommends in-text citations when citing sources within your paper. Unlike other writing styles, like Chicago, notes should never be used in place of citations. Instead, MLA footnotes and endnotes are used for the following:
- When citing many sources at once.
- To provide additional information regarding a citation, like a translation source.
- To elaborate on ideas that would otherwise take up far too much space in parentheses.
- To give extra examples that won’t fit in the main body.
MLA footnotes and endnotes appear either at the bottom of the page or end of the main body. While you can pick either method, be consistent and use just one in your paper. You can cite sources within your notes, too; so, remember to include the full reference within your works cited section.
MLA footnotes and endnotes – Format
MLA footnotes and endnotes are formatted with superscript numbers in the text that correspond with an equivalently numbered note later. It’s a general convention that a superscript number should appear at the end of a sentence following a period. However, it’s also okay to place a superscript number within a sentence after the punctuation of a clause if it helps with clarity. This is particularly useful if there is more than one note within a sentence. An exception to this rule is the use of dashes. If you include a dash (—), include your superscript number before the dash, not after it (¹—).
Here are some common examples of note use and superscript placement within a text:
- Scholars have debated this issue for decades.¹
- Scholars have identified three formats:¹ formal, informal and reductive. Each of these was further outlined in Smith’s (1967) thesis on productivity.²
The note itself appears either at the bottom or end of the text. The corresponding note number is written again in superscript, followed by the note content in the same font as your main body in a smaller text size, usually 10-point text. The first line is also indented. Most word processing programs contain an option for automatic note formatting under the “insert” tab . Your note will appear something like this:
- ¹. Smith (45) and Robinson (22) refuted the effect of correct punctuation on language progression.
How to format the endnotes page
If you’re using endnotes instead of footnotes, list them at the end of your text on a new page just before the works cited section. This should be center titled either “Notes” or “Endnotes” at the top of the page. As with other MLA formatting conventions, the endnotes section should be double spaced. For example:
- ¹ For further discussion on the citation, see Parker 12-24; Gibaldi 1-4; and Trimmer 56-59.
- ² Robinson translated this as stylistique , but the contemporary convention is élégant .
MLA footnotes and endnotes – Multiple sources
MLA footnotes and endnotes provide extra space to cite multiple lengthy sources. This allows you to save space in the text to allow your argument to flow better. This note information can include more sources or supplementary information on the topic/source that’s relevant to the paper. If a note consists solely of sources, you don’t need to use parentheses on the page number/range. For example:
MLA footnotes and endnotes – Citation/translation explanations
MLA footnotes and endnotes should be used to elaborate on information that’s crucial to understanding the source. For instance, information on translations, including your own translations of a text, can be clarified within the notes. Information about editions or specifics to do with editions should also be included in note form. For example:
- ¹ Translations are provided by Kevin Smith unless otherwise noted.
- ² Translations of Republic refer to G. M. A. Grube’s edition.
MLA footnotes and endnotes – Elaborate ideas
You can use a note to elaborate on ideas that are mentioned in passing within the text. This is where additional information would be very useful to the reader but not within the argument’s main body. If the information is crucial to your argument, it should be within the main body. While there is no written guidance on note length, you shouldn’t rely on notes to illustrate your knowledge or research, and they should be used sparingly. Be wary about creating excessively long notes as this can be distracting. For example:
- ¹ Robinson makes it clear that Republic ‘s concern for justice cannot be isolated from the contemporary political life in Athens (42).
MLA footnotes and endnotes – Add more examples
Sometimes, the breadth of examples can affect the flow of your argument within the text. Here, MLA footnotes and endnotes can be used to provide these extra examples with adequate space. Remember, this isn’t a place to simply list sources related to your argument, but sources that enhance your argument or provide useful background for your reader. For instance, many writers opt to place counterexamples in their notes so as to address different opinions/arguments on the topic. For example:
- ¹ Scientific consensus leans toward this methodology. See, Robinson; Smith; and Haggerston.
- ² Richardson (45) has taken the opposite opinion.
Do you use footnotes and endnotes in MLA style?
Yes. MLA footnotes and endnotes are allowed. However, the MLA style discourages lengthy notes and prefers tight and concise writing, instead.
Should I cite sources from my main text with MLA footnotes and endnotes?
No. The MLA style allows the use of footnotes and endnotes to provide extra information only. Do not use notes to cite sources within your text.
Do I have to use MLA footnotes and endnotes?
No. You don’t have to use notes within your paper.
Can I cite from footnotes or endnotes?
Yes. To cite a note in the MLA style, write “n” after the page number, followed by the note number.
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MLA Style Guide - 7th Edition
- Getting Started
- In-Text Citations
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Endnotes and Footnotes
Mla recommends limited use of endnotes and footnotes as they can be distracting to the reader., however, sometimes your instructor or editor may request that you use them. if that is the case, follow the suggestions on this page for guidance..
How do endnotes and footnotes differ from the Works Cited page?
Endnotes and footnotes are not used to cite an outside source. They may be used for two reasons: (1) to provide the reader with additional information or explanation, or (2) to list several sources consulted but not referred to in the text, or provide commentary on a source.
If your instructor requests endnotes: Endnotes should be placed on a separate page, after the content of the paper but before the Works Cited page. The page should be titled "Notes," centered on the page.
- The notes themselves should be listed by consecutive numbers that correspond to the notation in the text. [i.e., place a superscript numeral at the end of the sentence in the text for which you want to make a notation.]
- Notes are double-spaced.
- Each endnote is indented five spaces; subsequent lines are flush with the left margin.
- Place a period and a space after each endnote number. Provide the appropriate note after the space.
Courtesy of Purdue OWL
If your instructor requests footnotes: The 7th edition of the MLA Handbook does not recommend a certain style or format when using footnotes, so it is best to ask your instructor what format he/she would like you to follow.
However, if your instructor has no preference, you may follow these guidelines from the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook:
- Begin footnotes four lines (two double-spaced lines) below the main text.
- Footnotes are single-spaced with a first-line indent.
- Each footnote is indented five spaces; subsequent lines are flush with the left margin.
- Place a period and a space after each footnote number. Provide the appropriate note after the space.
Courtesy of Purdue OWL
For a more detailed explanation of the rules surrounding endnotes and footnotes, consult the MLA Handbook , section 6.5:
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While in MLA style, in-text citations are the primary method for citing sources, you can use footnotes and endnotes to offer additional information or commentary. For example, an MLA footnote or endnote might be used to provide background information, define terms, or offer further explanation of a particular point.
- MLA footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page where a specific source has been mentioned.
- MLA endnotes appear in a list at the end of the paper.
If you are new to academic writing, MLA footnotes and MLA endnotes can be quite misleading. Some experts will tell you to use parenthetical MLA citation in text and not bother with notes. Others will insist that notes are an integral part of a decent research paper. So what side should you listen to? The only correct answer is: “It depends.” There is no one-size-fits-all approach in citing sources in MLA. Your choice will largely depend on your specific goals. We created this comprehensive guide with all tricky questions about MLA footnotes and endnotes covered. It’s jam-packed with valuable suggestions that you can start following right away to create a custom research paper . Let’s dive deep, shall we?
Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style: Definition and Purpose
Footnotes in MLA and endnotes in MLA are explanatory notes that provide additional information on sources. MLA 9th edition recommends avoiding lengthy notes. Depending on their goal, footnotes and endnotes fall into one of these 2 buckets:
- Bibliographical notes
- Content notes.
Any sources you reference in your footnotes or endnotes, much like sources in the main text, must be included in your Works Cited list. Arabic superscript numerals are used to signify both footnotes and endnotes. The number is generally placed after any punctuation or a clause in your sentence. Then, numbered notes should be placed either at the bottom of a page or at the end of your whole text.
Footnotes vs Endnotes: The Main Difference
Now, let’s discuss the difference between footnotes and endnotes in MLA. Footnotes in MLA style format are basically provided at the end of a page where you refer to your source. Meanwhile, endnotes appear at the end of your document but before your Works Cited page. The style used in both types of notes are identical. As you can see, their location in your text is the only difference.
When to Use Footnote and Endnote Citations in MLA
Researchers use footnote citations MLA or any MLA endnote to provide additional details about the source or your idea. Here’re just several cases when you may need footnotes and endnotes:
- Reference multiple sources related to a single point.
- Explain peculiarities of documentation.
- Add extra details about your citation.
- Expand upon ideas on your topic.
- Offer examples that don’t blend into the body.
- Specify editions or translated versions of an original source.
Explanatory or digressive remarks are discouraged by the MLA 9th edition. However, MLA style allows you to include endnotes or footnotes for bibliographic notes that allude to other publications your readers may want to check out.
Using Bibliographic Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA
Bibliographic footnotes and endnotes in MLA are used to help students avoid stuffing their text and get sidetracked. Below, you can find examples of bibliographic notes prepared by a thesis writer and their frequent use cases.
- Citing multiple sources in one sentence
Please note that all sources should be separated by a semicolon. As a rule, your citation should contain an author’s last name, work’s title and page number(s).
- Explain peculiar documentation techniques
This can be an unusual font style or formatting.
- Editions or translations
It is only required to provide an MLA note in case there are more than 1 edition or translation of the cited source. The best practice is to create a note where the work is mentioned first in your text.
Using Content Notes: MLA footnotes and Endnotes
Now let’s see how to cite with footnotes MLA if you are using content notes. Content notes are usually used to denote some commentary that your main text can’t contain. Here’re examples of several use cases.
- Expanding on the topic
By using this approach, you can direct readers to the source for more useful details. Besides, this method allows sharing more insights on the topic.
- Explaining word choice
In this type of notes, you will generally explain why an author has used specific words or figures of speech.
- Specifying the scope of your study
Content notes can help you clarify the scope of your study so readers know what will be discussed later.
- Giving more examples
Sometimes, you may have multiple examples that can clutter your main text. Using notes is your best option in this case. This way, your writing will look neat and organized.
- Signifying an area of future research
Use MLA footnotes or endnotes when you want to pinpoint that some ideas should be explored further. This may sound like a standalone idea that doesn’t blend in your text. That’s why content notes will be the right choice.
- Listing authors who appear as et al. in citation
Sometimes you want to mention all important people involved in creating some work. That's exactly when MLA footnotes or endnotes come in handy.
- Acknowledging someone
Content notes are also used to express attitude to someone who has helped you with your research.
How to Use Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA: Examples
To categorically answer how to do MLA footnotes, one must review MLA endnotes and footnotes examples. Footnotes should be placed at the bottom of the page in their own section. On the page, keep the same numerical order. Place a superscript number related to your in-text citation at the top of each note.For note references, do not use asterisks (*), angle brackets (>), or other symbols. Endnotes and footnotes should match to the note references in the text. Let’s look at this example.
MLA Footnotes and Endnotes Format
MLA endnote format and MLA footnote format require superscript and all other details. In MLA style, a number in superscript must be used to indicate a footnote. Put it at the end of a sentence if possible. However, in other situations, having the superscript number in the midst of a phrase will make more sense.
Superscript numbers are usually placed after any punctuation or quotation marks. The only exception is the dash, which should go after your note number.
In your notes, page numbers should be wrapped by parentheses if page numbers interrupt your idea. Besides, you should use parentheses if page numbers are given at the end of a sentence.
If you are using MLA endnotes, create a notes section at the end of your text. You can name it “Notes” or “Endnotes.” Don't forget to center-align your title and double-space your text.
MLA Footnotes and Endnotes: Bottom Line
Footnotes and endnotes MLA have many types and use cases. Luckily, we covered most burning questions about notes that you may have had. We hope that this guide has cleared up lots of tricky things for you. Make sure you have carefully read this article to create a neat work with correct notes.
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MLA Citation Guide (8th Edition): EndNote Basic
- Books, Ebooks, & Pamphlets
- Business Reports from Library Databases
- Class Notes & Presentations
- Wikipedia, Encyclopedias, & Dictionaries
- Government and Legal Documents
- Images, Charts, Graphs, & Tables
- Interviews and Emails (Personal Communications)
- Journal Articles
- Magazine Articles
- Newspaper Articles
- Religious Texts
- Social Media
- Videos & DVDs
- When Creating Digital Assignments
- When Information Is Missing
- When a Work Is Quoted in Another Source
- In-Text Citation
- Works Cited & Paper Format
- Annotated Bibliography
- Permalinks, URLs, & DOIs!
- Citation Tools
- EndNote Basic
- Informal Citations
What is EndNote Basic?
EndNote is a software program that works with Microsoft Word to automatically format in-text citations and end-of-paper reference lists with your chosen style (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.). The "Basic" edition is a limited, online-based version that is free to use.
- Getting Started
- Adding Items
- Adding Items - Google Scholar
- Creating Bibliographies
EndNote Basic is an online version of the EndNote software that allows you to save and organize your references as well as create citations and bibliographies in Microsoft Word. You can sign up for a free EndNote Basic account and access your references online, or you can try the desktop version free for 30 days.
The best way to export items into your EndNote account is by using the Direct Export in RIS format.
Even if you see an option for direct export to EndNote listed as on option, use RIS format instead.
The RIS file will download into your download folder on your computer. You won't be able to open it and that's okay.
The file will usually be named with the database you found the article in. This is helpful to note so that you choose the right RIS file to export into Endnote.
In your Endnote account, click on Collect and then Import References .
On the Import References screen, choose the file you want to import.
For import option, ALWAYS choose Refman RIS.
Select the folder you want the import to go to.
Click the import button.
When you're finished, the reference will appear in the group you selected.
Just like with the databases, you will export items in Google Scholar using Refman RIS.
First, you need to set up your Google Scholar account to export using Refman RIS.
Under the 'three bars' icon you will see an option for settings. Click that.
Under settings, you will see Bibliography Manager at the bottom of the screen.
Change the option to Refman.
Find an item you want to export into EndNote.
You will notice that Import into RefMan is now an option.
A file called scholar.ris will download into your downloads folder.
In your Endnote account, click on Collect and then Import References .
On the Import References screen, choose the file you want to import.
Click the import button.
You have two options for creating a bibliography from your EndNote references:
1. You can use the Cite As You Write toolbar for Microsoft Word to insert citations and generate a bibliography in the citation style of your choice. You will need to download the "Cite While You Write Plugin" found under the "format" tab. Just follow the steps outlined.
Once installed in Word, you will see Endnote show up in the menu bar.
2. You can generate a bibliography from your EndNote references online. Under the Format menu, select "Bibliography," choose the list of references you want to use in the bibliography, choose your preferred citation style, and select a file format for the bibliography (Rich Text Format is usually a good choice).
You can save the bibliography as a separate file, email it, or preview it in a pop-up window, where you can copy & paste it into another document (Note: make sure your browser pop-up blocker is turned off).
Guides and Tutorials
- EndNote Quick PDF guide
- EndNote Support
- EndNote Training
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- Last Updated: Sep 4, 2023 2:50 PM
- URL: https://libguides.salemstate.edu/mla