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  • Bibliography management with bibtex
  • 1 Advisory note
  • 2 Introduction
  • 3.1 A note on compilation times
  • 4.1 Some notes on using \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) and .bib files
  • 5.1 Multiple authors in \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\)
  • 5.2 Multiple-word last names
  • 5.3 I tried to use % to comment out some lines or entries in my .bib file, but I got lots of error messages instead?
  • 6.1 Edit the .bib file as plain text
  • 6.2 Help from GUI-based .bib editors
  • 6.3 Export from reference library services
  • 6.4 I’ve already got a reference list in a Microsoft Word/HTML/PDF file; can I somehow reuse the data without re-typing everything?
  • 7.1 Further reading

Advisory note

If you are starting from scratch we recommend using biblatex because that package provides localization in several languages, it’s actively developed and makes bibliography management easier and more flexible.

Introduction

Many tutorials have been written about what \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) is and how to use it . However, based on our experience of providing support to Overleaf’s users, it’s still one of the topics that many newcomers to \(\mathrm{\LaTeX}\) find complicated—especially when things don’t go quite right; for example: citations aren’t appearing; problems with authors’ names; not sorted to a required order; URLs not displayed in the references list, and so forth.

In this article we’ll pull together all the threads relating to citations, references and bibliographies, as well as how Overleaf and related tools can help users manage these.

We’ll start with a quick recap of how \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) and bibliography database ( .bib ) files work and look at some ways to prepare .bib files. This is, of course, running the risk of repeating some of the material contained in many online tutorials, but future articles will expand our coverage to include bibliography styles and biblatex —the alternative package and bibliography processor.

Bibliography: just a list of \bibitems

Let’s first take a quick look “under the hood” to see what a \(\mathrm{\LaTeX}\) reference list is comprised of—please don’t start coding your reference list like this because later in this article we’ll look at other, more convenient, ways to do this.

A reference list really just a thebibliography list of \bibitems :

By default, this thebibliography environment is a numbered list with labels [1] , [2] and so forth. If the document class used is article , \begin{thebibliography} automatically inserts a numberless section heading with \refname (default value: References ). If the document class is book or report, then a numberless chapter heading with \bibname (default value: Bibliography ) is inserted instead. Each \bibitem takes a cite key as its parameter, which you can use with \cite commands, followed by information about the reference entry itself. So if you now write

together with the thebibliography block from before, this is what gets rendered into your PDF when you run a \(\mathrm{\LaTeX}\) processor (i.e. any of latex , pdflatex , xelatex or lualatex ) on your source file:

Citing entries from a thebibliography list

Figure 1: Citing entries from a thebibliography list.

Notice how each \bibitem is automatically numbered, and how \cite then inserts the corresponding numerical label.

\begin{thebibliography} takes a numerical argument: the widest label expected in the list. In this example we only have two entries, so 9 is enough. If you have more than ten entries, though, you may notice that the numerical labels in the list start to get misaligned:

thebibliography with a label that’s too short

Figure 2: thebibliography with a label that’s too short.

We’ll have to make it \begin{thebibliography}{99} instead, so that the longest label is wide enough to accommodate the longer labels, like this:

thebibliography with a longer label width

Figure 3: thebibliography with a longer label width.

If you compile this example code snippet on a local computer you may notice that after the first time you run pdflatex (or another \(\mathrm{\LaTeX}\) processor), the reference list appears in the PDF as expected, but the \cite commands just show up as question marks [?] .

This is because after the first \(\mathrm{\LaTeX}\) run the cite keys from each \bibitem ( texbook , lamport94 ) are written to the .aux file and are not yet available for reading by the \cite commands. Only on the second run of pdflatex are the \cite commands able to look up each cite key from the .aux file and insert the corresponding labels ( [1] , [2] ) into the output.

On Overleaf, though, you don’t have to worry about re-running pdflatex yourself. This is because Overleaf uses the latexmk build tool , which automatically re-runs pdflatex (and some other processors) for the requisite number of times needed to resolve \cite outputs. This also accounts for other cross-referencing commands, such as \ref and \tableofcontents .

A note on compilation times

Processing \(\mathrm{\LaTeX}\) reference lists or other forms of cross-referencing, such as indexes, requires multiple runs of software—including the \(\mathrm{\TeX}\) engine (e.g., pdflatex ) and associated programs such as \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\), makeindex , etc. As mentioned above, Overleaf handles all of these mulitple runs automatically, so you don’t have to worry about them. As a consequence, when the preview on Overleaf is refreshing for documents with bibliographies (or other cross-referencing), or for documents with large image files (as discussed separately here ), these essential compilation steps may sometimes make the preview refresh appear to take longer than on your own machine. We do, of course, aim to keep it as short as possible! If you feel your document is taking longer to compile than you’d expect, here are some further tips that may help.

Enter \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\)

There are, of course, some inconveniences with manually preparing the thebibliography list:

  • It’s up to you to accurately format each \bibitem based on the reference style you’re asked to use—which bits should be in bold or italic? Should the year come immediately after the authors, or at the end of the entry? Given names first, or last names first?
  • If you’re writing for a reference style which requires the reference list to be sorted by the last names of first authors, you’ll need to sort the \bibitem s yourself.
  • For different manuscripts or documents that use different reference styles you’ll need to rewrite the \bibitem for each reference.

This is where \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) and bibliography database files ( .bib files) are extremely useful, and this is the recommended approach to manage citations and references in most journals and theses. The biblatex approach, which is slightly different and gaining popularity, also requires a .bib file but we’ll talk about biblatex in a future post.

Instead of formatting cited reference entries in a thebibliography list, we maintain a bibliography database file (let’s name it refs.bib for our example) which contains format-independent information about our references. So our refs.bib file may look like this:

You can find more information about other \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) reference entry types and fields here —there’s a huge table showing which fields are supported for which entry types. We’ll talk more about how to prepare .bib files in a later section.

Now we can use \cite with the cite keys as before, but now we replace thebibliography with a \bibliographystyle{...} to choose the reference style, as well as \bibliography{...} to point \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) at the .bib file where the cited references should be looked-up.

This is processed with the following sequence of commands, assuming our \(\mathrm{\LaTeX}\) document is in a file named main.tex (and that we are using pdflatex ):

  • pdflatex main
  • bibtex main

and we get the following output:

BibTeX output with plain bibliography style

Figure 4: \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) output using the plain bibliography style.

Whoah! What’s going on here and why are all those (repeated) processes required? Well, here’s what happens.

During the first pdflatex run, all pdflatex sees is a \bibliographystyle{...} and a \bibliography{...} from main.tex . It doesn’t know what all the \cite{...} commands are about! Consequently, within the output PDF, all the \cite{...} commands are simply rendered as [?], and no reference list appears, for now. But pdflatex writes information about the bibliography style and .bib file, as well as all occurrences of \cite{...} , to the file main.aux .

It’s actually main.aux that \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) is interested in! It notes the .bib file indicated by \bibliography{...} , then looks up all the entries with keys that match the \cite{...} commands used in the .tex file. \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) then uses the style specified with \bibliographystyle{...} to format the cited entries, and writes a formatted thebibliography list into the file main.bbl . The production of the .bbl file is all that’s achieved in this step; no changes are made to the output PDF.

When pdflatex is run again, it now sees that a main.bbl file is available! So it inserts the contents of main.bbl i.e. the \begin{thebibliography}....\end{thebibliography} into the \(\mathrm{\LaTeX}\) source, where \bibliography{...} is. After this step, the reference list appears in the output PDF formatted according to the chosen \bibliographystyle{...} , but the in-text citations are still [?].

pdflatex is run again, and this time the \cite{...} commands are replaced with the corresponding numerical labels in the output PDF!

As before, the latexmk build tool takes care of triggering and re-running pdflatex and bibtex as necessary, so you don’t have to worry about this bit.

Some notes on using \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) and .bib files

A few further things to note about using \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) and .bib files :

  • You may have noticed that although refs.bib contained five \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) reference entries, only two are included in the reference list in the output PDF. This is an important point about \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\): the .bib file’s role is to store bibliographic records, and only entries that have been cited (via \cite{...} ) in the .tex files will appear in the reference list. This is similar to how only cited items from an EndNote database will be displayed in the reference list in a Microsoft Word document. If you do want to include all entries—to be displayed but without actually citing all of them—you can write \nocite{*} . This also means you can reuse the same .bib file for all your \(\mathrm{\LaTeX}\) projects: entries that are not cited in a particular manuscript or report will be excluded from the reference list in that document.
  • \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) requires one \bibliographystyle{...} and one \bibliography{...} to function correctly—in future posts we’ll see how to create multiple bibliographies in the same document. If you keep getting “undefined citation” warnings, check that you have indeed included those two commands, and that the names are spelled correctly. File extensions are not usually required, but bear in mind that file names are case sensitive on some operating systems—including on Overleaf! Therefore, if you typed \bibliographystyle{IEEetran} (note the typo: “e”) instead of \bibliographystyle{IEEEtran} , or wrote \bibliography{refs} when the actual file name is Refs.bib , you’ll get the dreaded [?] as citations.
  • In the same vein, treat your cite keys as case-sensitive, always. Use the exact same case or spelling in your \cite{...} as in your .bib file.
  • The order of references in the .bib file does not have any effect on how the reference list is ordered in the output PDF: the sorting order of the reference list is determined by the \bibliographystyle{...} . For example, some readers might have noticed that, within my earlier example, the first citation in the text latex2e is numbered [2], while the second citation in the text ( texbook ) is numbered [1]! Have \(\mathrm{\LaTeX}\) and \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) lost the plot? Not at all: this is actually because the plain style sorts the reference list by alphabetical order of the first author’s last name . If you prefer a scheme where the numerical citation labels are numbered sequentially throughout the text, you’ll have to choose a bibliography style which implements this. For example, if instead we had used \bibliographystyle{IEEEtran} for that example, we’d get the following output. Notice also how the formatting of each cited item in the reference list has automatically updated to suit the IEEE’s style:

IEEEtran bibliography style output

Figure 5: IEEEtran bibliography style output.

We’ll talk more about different bibliography styles, including author–year citation schemes, in a future article. For now, let’s turn our attention to .bib file contents, and how we can make the task of preparing .bib files a bit easier.

Taking another look at .bib files

As you may have noticed earlier, a .bib file contains \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) bibliography entries that start with an entry type prefixed with an @ . Each entry has a some key–value \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) fields , placed within a pair of braces ( {...} ). The cite key is the first piece of information given within these braces, and every field in the entry must be separated by a comma :

As a general rule, every bibliography entry should have an author , year and title field, no matter what the type is. There are about a dozen entry types although some bibliography styles may recognise/define more; however, it is likely that you will most frequently use the following entry types:

  • @article for journal articles (see example above).
  • @inproceedings for conference proceeding articles:
  • @book for books (see examples above).
  • @phdthesis , @masterthesis for dissertations and theses:
  • @inbook is for a book chapter where the entire book was written by the same author(s): the chapter of interest is identified by a chapter number:
  • @incollection is for a contributed chapter in a book, so would have its own author and title . The actual title of the entire book is given in the booktitle field; it is likely that an editor field will also be present:
  • you will often find it useful to add \usepackage{url} or \usepackage{hyperref} in your .tex files’ preamble (for more robust handling of URLs);
  • not all bibliography styles support the url field: plain doesn’t, but IEEEtran does. All styles support note . More on this in a future post;
  • you should be mindful that even web pages and @misc entries should have an author , a year and a title field:

Multiple authors in \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\)

In a .bib file, commas are only used to separate the last name from the first name of an author—if the last name is written first. Individual author names are separated by and . So these are correct:

But none of the following will work correctly —you’ll get weird output, or even error messages from \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\)! So take extra care if you are copying author names from a paper or from a web page.

Multiple-word last names

If an author’s last name is made up of multiple words separated by spaces, or if it’s actually an organisation, place an extra pair of braces around the last name so that \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) will recognise the grouped words as the last name:

Alternatively, you can use the Lastname, Firstname format; some users find that clearer and more readable:

Remember: Whether the first or last name appears first in the output (“John Doe” vs “Doe, John”), or whether the first name is automatically abbreviated “J. Doe” or “Doe, J.” vs “John Doe” “J. Doe”), all such details are controlled by the \bibliographystyle .

I tried to use % to comment out some lines or entries in my .bib file, but I got lots of error messages instead?

% is actually not a comment character in .bib files! So, inserting a % in .bib files not only fails to comment out the line, it also causes some \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) errors. To get \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) to ignore a particular field we just need to rename the field to something that \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) doesn’t recognise. For example, if you want to keep a date field around but prefer that it’s ignored (perhaps because you want \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) to use the year field instead) write Tdate = {...} or the more human-readable IGNOREdate = {...} .

To get \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) to ignore an entire entry you can remove the @ before the entry type. A valid reference entry always starts with a @ followed by the entry type; without the @ character \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) skips the lines until it encounters another @ .

How/where do I actually get those .bib files?

Edit the .bib file as plain text.

Because .bib files are plain text you can certainly write them by hand—once you’re familiar with \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\)’s required syntax. Just make sure that you save it with a .bib extension, and that your editor doesn’t surreptitiously add a .txt or some other suffix. On Overleaf you can click on the “Files…” link at the top of the file list panel, and then on “Add blank file” to create a fresh .bib file to work on.

Pro tip: Did you know that Google Scholar search results can be exported to a \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) entry? Click on the “Cite” link below each search result, and then on the “\(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\)” option search. You can then copy the \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) entry generated. Here’s a video that demonstrates the process. Note that you should always double-check the fields presented in the entry, as the automatically populated information isn’t always comprehensive or accurate!

Help from GUI-based .bib editors

Many users prefer to use a dedicated \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) bibliography database editor/manager, such as JabRef or BibDesk to maintain, edit and add entries to their .bib files. Using a GUI can indeed help reduce syntax and spelling errors whilst creating bibliography entries in a \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) file. If you prefer, you can prepare your .bib file on your own machine using JabRef, BibDesk or another utility, and then upload it to your Overleaf.

Pro tip: If you’d like to use the same .bib for multiple Overleaf projects, have a look at this help article to set up a “master project”, or this one for sharing files from Google Drive (the instructions apply to other cloud-based storage solutions, such as Dropbox).

Export from reference library services

If you click on the Upload files button above the file list panel, you'll notice some options: Import from Mendeley, and Import from Zotero. If you’re already using one of those reference library management services, Overleaf can now hook into the Web exporter APIs provided by those services to import the .bib file (generated from your library) into your Overleaf project. For more information, see the Overleaf article How to link your Overleaf account to Mendeley and Zotero .

For other reference library services that don’t have a public API, or are not yet directly integrated with Overleaf, such as EndNote or Paperpile , look for an “export to .bib ” option in the application or service. Once you have a .bib file, you can then add it to your Overleaf project.

I’ve already got a reference list in a Microsoft Word/HTML/PDF file; can I somehow reuse the data without re-typing everything?

It used to be that you would have to hand-code each line into a \bibitem or an @article{...} entry (or another entry type) in a .bib file. As you can imagine, it’s not exactly a task that many people look forward to. Fortunately, these days some tools are available to help. They typically take a plain text file, e.g.

and attempt to parse the lines, converting it into a structured bibliography as a \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) .bib file. For example, have a look at text2bib or Edifix . Be sure to go through the options of these tools carefully, so that they work well with your existing unstructured bibliography in plain text.

Summary and further reading

We’ve had a quick look at how \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\) processes a .bib bibliography database file to resolve \cite commands and produce a formatted reference list, as well as how to prepare .bib files.

Happy \(\mathrm{Bib\TeX}\)ing!

Further reading

For more information see:

  • Bibtex bibliography styles
  • Bibliography management with natbib
  • Bibliography management with biblatex
  • BibTeX documentation at CTAN web site
  • tocbind package documentation
  • Table of contents
  • Management in a large project
  • Multi-file LaTeX projects
  • Documentation Home
  • Learn LaTeX in 30 minutes

Overleaf guides

  • Creating a document in Overleaf
  • Uploading a project
  • Copying a project
  • Creating a project from a template
  • Using the Overleaf project menu
  • Including images in Overleaf
  • Exporting your work from Overleaf
  • Working offline in Overleaf
  • Using Track Changes in Overleaf
  • Using bibliographies in Overleaf
  • Sharing your work with others
  • Using the History feature
  • Debugging Compilation timeout errors
  • How-to guides
  • Guide to Overleaf’s premium features

LaTeX Basics

  • Creating your first LaTeX document
  • Choosing a LaTeX Compiler
  • Paragraphs and new lines
  • Bold, italics and underlining

Mathematics

  • Mathematical expressions
  • Subscripts and superscripts
  • Brackets and Parentheses
  • Fractions and Binomials
  • Aligning equations
  • Spacing in math mode
  • Integrals, sums and limits
  • Display style in math mode
  • List of Greek letters and math symbols
  • Mathematical fonts
  • Using the Symbol Palette in Overleaf

Figures and tables

  • Inserting Images
  • Positioning Images and Tables
  • Lists of Tables and Figures
  • Drawing Diagrams Directly in LaTeX
  • TikZ package

References and Citations

  • Natbib bibliography styles
  • Natbib citation styles
  • Biblatex bibliography styles
  • Biblatex citation styles
  • Multilingual typesetting on Overleaf using polyglossia and fontspec
  • Multilingual typesetting on Overleaf using babel and fontspec
  • International language support
  • Quotations and quotation marks

Document structure

  • Sections and chapters
  • Cross referencing sections, equations and floats
  • Nomenclatures
  • Lengths in L a T e X
  • Headers and footers
  • Page numbering
  • Paragraph formatting
  • Line breaks and blank spaces
  • Text alignment
  • Page size and margins
  • Single sided and double sided documents
  • Multiple columns
  • Code listing
  • Code Highlighting with minted
  • Using colours in LaTeX
  • Margin notes
  • Font sizes, families, and styles
  • Font typefaces
  • Supporting modern fonts with X Ǝ L a T e X

Presentations

  • Environments

Field specific

  • Theorems and proofs
  • Chemistry formulae
  • Feynman diagrams
  • Molecular orbital diagrams
  • Chess notation
  • Knitting patterns
  • CircuiTikz package
  • Pgfplots package
  • Typesetting exams in LaTeX
  • Attribute Value Matrices

Class files

  • Understanding packages and class files
  • List of packages and class files
  • Writing your own package
  • Writing your own class

Advanced TeX/LaTeX

  • In-depth technical articles on TeX/LaTeX

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I can't cite from my jabref file. Can you please help?

It is my first time to use jabref, I created my reference list on jabref. I used the code \cite{name} in latex but i got question marks. What am i doing wrong?

JabRef “only” manages .bib files. So, your issue is more related to LaTeX and BibTeX than to JabRef.

The question marks indicates that, somehow, LaTeX does not find the references associated with your \cite commands. To get your document with references, you need to compile with LaTeX, then with BibTeX, then with LaTeX again. BibTeX will output 2 files: One ending with .bbl, the other with .blg. The .blg file logs the errors found by BibTeX. Its content may help you find out what is going on. Also, LaTeX creates a .log file that main content hints.

Maybe also the documentation/tutorial here may help you:

https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX/Bibliography_Management#Getting_current_LaTeX_document_to_use_your_.bib_file

To quote from there: You need to reference the created *.bib file from JabRef in you TeX document using the following lines:

bibfilename is a placeholder for the actual filename you are using. Thus, if your file is named “MyBibFile.bib” you’ll have to use \bibliography{MyBibFile} (without file extension!)

I found this example from bibtex website and still got question mark when I cite. I cant really understand, maybe it is too easy but i cant figure it out.

bibtex file:

@misc { Nobody06, author = “Nobody Jr”, title = “My Article”, year = “2006” }

latex file: \documentclass[11pt]{article} \usepackage{cite}

\begin{document}

\title{My Article} \author{Nobody Jr.} \date{Today} \maketitle

Blablabla said Nobody ~\cite{Nobody06}.

\bibliography{mybib}{} \bibliographystyle{plain} \end{document}

By compiling with latex, bibtex, latex and finally latex, it works on my computer.

The tutorial given to you by matthiasgeiger should be helpful to you (see above).

It works now. Thank you.

Related Topics

[Tex/LaTex] natbib | Question Mark instead of Citation

bibliographies bibtex natbib

I've spend hours already trying to get natbib running. Im using Texmaker on Windows XP and just cannot find the problem:

  • I made sure the link to the .bib file is correct
  • I changed the bibliography style to a "natbib" compatible one
  • I'm compiling document, bibtex, document, document

So is there maybe any problem with my code?

Best Answer

Your file runs pproperly with me if:

remove .bib extension from the bibliography file

pdflatex bibtex pdflatex pdflatex

in this sequence.

enter image description here

If it is not working for you, you may check the log file generated by bibtex . (Have you defined the bibtex key oecd11 in your bibtex entry?) You may also post your bibtex entry along with MWE.

PS. Since you did not provide the .bib file, I used another one.

Related Solutions

[tex/latex] question mark shown instead of citation using harvard.

It seems you want sorted citations and therefore load both the harvard and cite packages, but apparently the latter is not compatible with the former. I suggest that you load just natbib with its sort option, which emulates the sort option of cite .

enter image description here

[Tex/LaTex] Question mark or bold citation key instead of citation number

Since this question comes up so often, I thought I'd try to supplement ArTourter's correct answer with a more general comment.

What does a question mark mean

It means that somewhere along the line the combination of LaTeX and BibTeX has failed to find and format the citation data you need for the citation: LaTeX can see you want to cite something, but doesn't know how to do so.

Missing citations show up differently in biblatex

If you are using biblatex you will not see a question mark, but instead you will see your citation key in bold. For example, if you have an item in your .bib file with the key Jones1999 you will see Jones1999 in your PDF.

How does this all work

To work out what's happening, you need to understand how the process is (supposed to) work. Imagine LaTeX and BibTeX as two separate people. LaTeX is a typesetter. BibTeX is an archivist. Roughly the process is supposed to run as follows:

LaTeX (the typesetter) reads the manuscript through and gives three pieces of information to BibTeX (the archivist): a list of the references that need to be cited, extracted from the \cite commands; a note of a file where those references can be found, extracted from the \bibliography command; a note of the sort of formatting required, extracted from the \bibliographystyle command.

BibTeX then goes off, looks up the data in the file it has been told to read, consults a file that tells it how to format the data, and generates a new file containing that data in a form that has been organised so that LaTeX can use it (the .bbl file).

LaTeX then has to take that data and typeset the document - and may indeed need more than one 'run' to do so properly (because there may be internal relationships within the data, or with the rest of the manuscript, which BibTeX neither knows or cares about, but which matter for typesetting.

Your question-mark tells you that something has gone wrong with this process.

More biblatex and biber notes

If you are using biblatex , the style information is located in the options passed to the to the biblatex package, and the raw data is in the \addbibresource command.

If you are using biber , the stage described as BibTeX in this answer is generally replaced with a different, and more cunning, archivist, Biber.

The first thing to do is to make sure that you have actually gone through the whole process at least once: that is why, to deal with any new citation, you will always need at least a LaTeX run (to prepare the information that needs to be handed to BibTeX), one BibTeX run, and one or more subsequent LaTeX runs. So first, make sure you have done that. Please notice, that latex and bibtex / biber need to be run on your main file (without the file ending). In other words, the basename of your main file: you do not run any commands on the .bib file.

If you still have problems, then something has gone wrong somewhere. And it's nearly always something about the flow of information.

Your first port of call is the BibTeX log ( .blg ) file. That will usually give you the information you need to diagnose the problem. So open that file (which will be called blah.blg where 'blah' is the name of your source file).

In a roughly logical order:

BibTeX did not find the style file . That's the file that tells it how to format references. In this case you will have an error , and BibTeX will complain I couldn't open the style file badstyle.bst . If you are trying to use a standard style, that's almost certainly because you have not spelled the style correctly in your \bibliographystyle command - so go and check that. If you are trying to use a non-standard style, it's probably because you've put it somewhere TeX can't find it. (For testing purposes, I find, it's wise to remember that it will always be found if it's in the same directory as your source file; but if you are installing using the facilities of your TeX system -- as an inexperienced person should be - you are unlikely to get that problem.)

BibTeX did not find the database file . That's the .bib file containing the data. In that case the log file will say I couldn't open database file badfile.bib , and will then warn you that it didn't find database files. The cure is the same: go back and check you have spelled the filename correctly, and that it is somewhere TeX can find it (if in doubt, put it in the folder with your source file).

BibTeX found the file, but it doesn't contain citation data for the thing you are trying cite. Now you will just get, in the log-file: Warning--I didn't find a database entry for "yourcitation" . That's what happened to you. You might think that you should have got a type 2 error: but you didn't because as it happens there is a file called mybib.bib hanging around on the system (as kpsewhich mybib.bib will reveal) -- so BibTeX found where it was supposed to look, but couldn't find the data it needed there. But essentially the order of diagnosis is the same: check you have the right file name in your \bibliography command. If that's all right, then there is something wrong with that file, or with your citation command. The most likely error here is that you've either forgotten to include the data in your .bib file, or you have more than one .bib file that you use and you've sent BibTeX to the wrong one, or you've mis-spelled the citation label (e.g. you've done \cite{nobdoy06} for \cite{nobody06} .

There's something wrong with the formatting of your entry in the .bib file. That's not uncommon: it's easy (for instance) to forget a comma. In that case you should have errors from BibTeX, and in particular something like I was expecting a ',' or a '}' and you will be told that it was skipping whatever remains of this entry . Whether that actually stops any citation being produced may depend on the error; I think BibTeX usually manages to produce something -- but biblatex can get totally stumped. Anyway, check and correct the particular entry.

biblatex and biber notes

If you are using biblatex , then generally you will also be using the Biber program instead of BibTeX program to process your bibliography, but the same general principles apply. Hence the compilation sequence becomes

The order of diagnosis is as follows:

Have I run LaTex, BibTeX (or Biber), LaTeX, LaTeX?

Look at the .blg file, which will help mightily in answering the following questions.

Has BibTeX/Biber found my style file? (Check whether you have a valid \bibliographystyle command and that there is a .bst with the same name where it can be found.)

Has BibTeX/Biber found my database? (Check the \bibliography names it correctly and it is able to be found.)

Has it found the right database?

Does the database contain an entry which matches the citation I have actually typed?

Is that entry valid?

Finally: When you have changed something, don't forget that you will need to go through the same LaTeX -- BibTeX (or Biber) -- LaTeX -- LaTeX run all over again to get it straight. (That's not actually quite true: but until you have more of a feel for the process it's a safe assumption to make.)

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Question marks in bibliography entries

Some publications have a title which ends in a question mark (a.k.a. interrogation mark or interrogation point). This becomes a problem when typesetting a bibliography, since a full stop is added after the title, resulting in something like:

Livermore, R., Hillenbrand, C.-D., Meredith, M. and Eagles, G. (2007). Drake Passage and Cenozoic climate: An open and shut case?. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems , 8(1), Q01005.

Note the ugly ‘?.’ conjunction at the end of the title.

A solution was suggested on the texhax mailing list ; at least one of the suggested hacks appears to work with ConTeXt. It requires the modification of the bibliography entries, and the definition of a new command. Below is a working example.

The BibTeX file, test.bib:

The document itself, test.tex:

  • I successfully tested this example with ConTeXt MkIV version 2011.10.01 (and I with MkIV 2019.07.04 beta).
  • Define the \killstop command before \starttext. The environment file is a good place for it, if you are using one.
  • Note the modifications necessary to the BibTeX entry itself: an extra pair of braces, and insertion of \killstop at the end.
  • Bibliography

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LaTeX forum ⇒ BibTeX, biblatex and biber ⇒ Question Marks instead of Citations

Question marks instead of citations.

Post by labitx » Mon Oct 15, 2012 4:27 pm

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Re: Question Marks instead of Citations

Post by localghost » Mon Oct 15, 2012 5:28 pm

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Mayorkas Was Impeached. What Happens Next?

The first impeachment of a sitting cabinet member sets off a series of choreographed rituals that dates back to the impeachment of former President Andrew Johnson in 1868.

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cite bibtex question mark

By Aishvarya Kavi

Reporting from Washington

  • Feb. 13, 2024

Republican members of the House impeached Alejandro N. Mayorkas, the homeland security secretary, with a simple majority vote on Tuesday. It sets off a series of choreographed rituals that dates back to the impeachment of former President Andrew Johnson in 1868. Here’s a look at what happens next.

A ceremonial procession

Once the House approves two articles of impeachment laying out the accusations against Mr. Mayorkas as part of its oversight and investigatory responsibilities , they are then walked over to the Senate.

The day after President Johnson was impeached, in February 1868, the articles of impeachment were delivered to the Senate by Representative Thaddeus Stevens, Republican of Pennsylvania. Mr. Stevens was so ill that he had to be carried through the Capitol .

Once the articles are delivered, the Senate, acting as a High Court of Impeachment , would schedule a trial during which senators would consider evidence, hear witnesses and, ultimately, vote to acquit or convict. They could also vote to dismiss the charges.

The Senate trial

The House speaker names impeachment managers from the chamber who would be tasked with arguing the case against the impeached official, serving as the prosecution team in the Senate trial.

In the case of Mr. Mayorkas, the impeachment articles also appoint 11 impeachment managers. The group includes Representatives Mark E. Green of Tennessee, the chairman of the Homeland Security Committee that drew up the charges, and Representative Marjorie Taylor Greene, Republican of Georgia, who has led the drive to seek his removal. Also part of the team are Representatives Andy Biggs of Arizona, Ben Cline of Virginia, Clay Higgins of Louisiana, Andrew Garbarino of New York, Michael Guest of Mississippi, Harriet M. Hageman of Wyoming, Laurel Lee of Florida, Michael McCaul of Texas and August Pfluger of Texas.

The Biden administration would have the right to have an agent or attorney appear to answer for the articles of impeachment against Mr. Mayorkas. That includes appointing House Democrats to serve on the defense team.

In a trial, senators would sit as a jury in judgment of Mr. Mayorkas. For many, it would be the third impeachment trial they would sit through, after two consecutive impeachment trials of former President Donald J. Trump, in 2020 and 2021. Eventually, senators would take a vote on the charges. They could agree to dismiss the articles or render a verdict.

The verdict

If a trial moves forward without the charges being dismissed, a two-thirds majority would be required to convict and remove Mr. Mayorkas, an exceedingly unlikely outcome given that Democrats control the Senate. Democrats have the majority, holding 48 seats and the votes of three independents who caucus with them. Senate Republicans are in the minority , controlling 49 seats. If Democrats held together in support of him, Mr. Mayorkas would be acquitted even if every Republican voted to convict.

If he were to be found guilty, according to Article II, Section Four of the Constitution, Mr. Mayorkas would be removed from his position and the Senate could vote to bar him from being able to hold office again.

Aishvarya Kavi is based in the Washington bureau. More about Aishvarya Kavi

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Computer Science > Computation and Language

Title: ai hospital: interactive evaluation and collaboration of llms as intern doctors for clinical diagnosis.

Abstract: The incorporation of Large Language Models (LLMs) in healthcare marks a significant advancement. However, the application has predominantly been limited to discriminative and question-answering tasks, which does not fully leverage their interactive potential. To address this limitation, our paper presents AI Hospital, a framework designed to build a real-time interactive diagnosis environment. To simulate the procedure, we collect high-quality medical records to create patient, examiner, and medical director agents. AI Hospital is then utilized for the interactive evaluation and collaboration of LLMs. Initially, we create a Multi-View Medical Evaluation (MVME) benchmark where various LLMs serve as intern doctors for interactive diagnosis. Subsequently, to improve diagnostic accuracy, we introduce a collaborative mechanism that involves iterative discussions and a dispute resolution process under the supervision of the medical director. In our experiments, we validate the reliability of AI Hospital. The results not only explore the feasibility of apply LLMs in clinical consultation but also confirm the effectiveness of the dispute resolution focused collaboration method.

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COMMENTS

  1. Latex \cite produces question mark?

    1 I have a couple of problems with my Latex. I am trying to reference from a .bib file. The \cite command just produces a (?). I tried the latex, bibtex, latex, latex sequence but that didn't help me. If I try \cite {pascal} I just get (?) but if I try \nocite {*} then it doesn*t make the (?) but just prints my .bib file in a random order.

  2. latex

    Question mark in citation using Bibtex Ask Question Asked 7 years, 6 months ago Modified 3 years, 3 months ago Viewed 30k times 3 Today I opened my Latex document and suddenly all citations turned to [?]. What surprised me is that everything was just perfect but suddenly today I found this issue. Has anyone faced such an issue before?

  3. BibTeX isn't working; my \cite are showing up as question marks

    This can happen for a number of reasons: Have you used any \cite commands in your document? Only bib entries that have been \cite in the main text will appear in the bibliography list. Did you specify the correct .bib file name (without extensions) for \bibliography {...}? It's case sensitive, so watch out for typos.

  4. 7. My reference citations appear as question marks when building the

    18. How do I add extra text (such as "e.g.,") within a citation? 19. Why are two sets of parentheses appearing around my citations? 20. How do I get parentheses to automatically appear around equation numbers in text? 21. How do I reference appendixes and appendix subsections using the \ref command? 22. How do I resolve the "too many math ...

  5. Bibliography management with bibtex

    By default, this thebibliography environment is a numbered list with labels [1], [2] and so forth. If the document class used is article, \begin{thebibliography} automatically inserts a numberless section heading with \refname (default value: References).If the document class is book or report, then a numberless chapter heading with \bibname (default value: Bibliography) is inserted instead.

  6. Citation in LaTex

    Citation in LaTex - question mark+author-year Postby dane » Fri Sep 13, 2019 8:20 am I am trying to cite in LaTex. Code: \bibliographystyle {plainnat} \begin {document} repeated interactions\cite (Axelrod1985) \bibliography {C:/citations/library.bib} \end {document}

  7. I can't cite from my jabref file. Can you please help?

    The question marks indicates that, somehow, LaTeX does not find the references associated with your \cite commands. To get your document with references, you need to compile with LaTeX, then with BibTeX, then with LaTeX again. BibTeX will output 2 files: One ending with .bbl, the other with .blg. The .blg file logs the errors found by BibTeX.

  8. No matter what I do, citations show as a question mark

    Typically for the citation to show up, you have to compile your tex file with bibtex ($ bibtex yourfile), and then compile with pdflatex or just latex twice (execute two times $ pdflatex yourfile). extinctpolarbear

  9. [Tex/LaTex] natbib

    What does a question mark mean. It means that somewhere along the line the combination of LaTeX and BibTeX has failed to find and format the citation data you need for the citation: LaTeX can see you want to cite something, but doesn't know how to do so. Missing citations show up differently in biblatex

  10. Bibtex Citation Generator

    How to cite a Blog in BibTeX generic citation style style. Use the following template to cite a blog using the BibTeX generic citation style citation style. ... I find it difficult to find a moral answer to that question. But it is undoubtedly the law. 1_airedale nhs trust v bland_1993 .

  11. Towards Faithful and Robust LLM Specialists for Evidence-Based Question

    Advances towards more faithful and traceable answers of Large Language Models (LLMs) are crucial for various research and practical endeavors. One avenue in reaching this goal is basing the answers on reliable sources. However, this Evidence-Based QA has proven to work insufficiently with LLMs in terms of citing the correct sources (source quality) and truthfully representing the information ...

  12. Question marks in bibliography entries

    Question marks in bibliography entries From Wiki Jump to navigationJump to search Some publications have a title which ends in a question mark (a.k.a. interrogation mark or interrogation point). Livermore, R., Hillenbrand, C.-D., Meredith, M. and Eagles, G. (2007). Drake Passage and Cenozoic climate: An open and shut case?.

  13. G-Retriever: Retrieval-Augmented Generation for Textual Graph

    Given a graph with textual attributes, we enable users to `chat with their graph': that is, to ask questions about the graph using a conversational interface. In response to a user's questions, our method provides textual replies and highlights the relevant parts of the graph. While existing works integrate large language models (LLMs) and graph neural networks (GNNs) in various ways, they ...

  14. Title: A Dataset of Open-Domain Question Answering with Multiple-Span

    Multi-span answer extraction, also known as the task of multi-span question answering (MSQA), is critical for real-world applications, as it requires extracting multiple pieces of information from a text to answer complex questions. Despite the active studies and rapid progress in English MSQA research, there is a notable lack of publicly available MSQA benchmark in Chinese. Previous efforts ...

  15. Cite not working, showing question mark

    1 As far i see from document example, you not load package which define bibliography style. For example natbib. However, now I see that you tagged question with biblatex, but you don't load this package. Please search site with tag biblatex. You will find plenty of examples how to proper use it.

  16. Question Marks instead of Citations

    Board index LaTeX's Friends BibTeX, biblatex and biber Ask a question LaTeX Text Formatting Graphics, Figures & Tables Math & Science Fonts & Character Sets Page Layout Document Classes General LaTeX's Friends BibTeX, biblatex and biber MakeIndex, Nomenclature, Glossaries and Acronyms Conversion Tools Viewers for PDF, PS, and DVI XeTeX Others ...

  17. A question mark appears on my citation in latex [duplicate]

    Jul 25, 2022 at 1:41. 2. If you are getting a question mark instead of a citation (and not say the entry key in bold), then it is more likely that you use a BibTeX-based bibliography setup instead of biblatex. But this is speculation and it is hard to help you properly if we have to guess what you are doing.

  18. Mayorkas Was Impeached. What Happens Next?

    In the case of Mr. Mayorkas, the impeachment articles also appoint 11 impeachment managers. The group includes Representatives Mark E. Green of Tennessee, the chairman of the Homeland Security ...

  19. [2402.09742] AI Hospital: Interactive Evaluation and Collaboration of

    The incorporation of Large Language Models (LLMs) in healthcare marks a significant advancement. However, the application has predominantly been limited to discriminative and question-answering tasks, which does not fully leverage their interactive potential. To address this limitation, our paper presents AI Hospital, a framework designed to build a real-time interactive diagnosis environment ...